A 3-year-old 17.5-kg (38.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of nasal discharge, sneezing, and signs of nasal congestion of approximately 9 months’ duration. A diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) was made prior to referral.
Sneezing, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, reduced nasal airflow, stertor, and increased inspiratory effort were noted on physical examination. Results of serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges. Review of CT images of the skull revealed findings consistent with severe bilateral partial osseous choanal atresia and NPS. Retrograde rhinoscopy confirmed membranous NPS.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A ventral rhinotomy was performed; communication between the pharynx and nasal passageway was reestablished by surgical debridement of the caudal border of the palatine bone and vomerine crest and groove, followed by dissection of the membranous NPS and reconstruction of the caudal part of the nasopharynx. A covered nasopharyngeal stent was placed in the newly established nasopharynx. The dog recovered uneventfully but was presented 3 weeks later with recurrent signs; diagnostic findings were consistent with stenosis rostral to the stent. The stenosis was treated with balloon dilation, and a second covered stent was placed rostral to and overlapping the first stent, spanning the stenotic region. Eleven months after this procedure, the dog was doing well.
Results for this patient suggested that ventral rhinotomy and covered nasopharyngeal stent placement can be used successfully for the management of osseous choanal atresia in dogs; however, careful attention to preoperative planning and potential complications is necessary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:190–196)
This retrospective study aimed to measure rabbit laryngotracheal dimensions at different locations on computed tomography (CT), assess the relationship of these measurements with rabbit body weight, determine the most common narrowest measurement and assess its relationship with endotracheal tube (ETT) size and body weight.
66 adult domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) of different breeds and body weights.
CT laryngotracheal luminal height, width, and cross-sectional area measurements were made at the rostral thyroid cartilage at the level of the arytenoids, caudal thyroid cartilage/rostral cricoid cartilage, caudal cricoid cartilage/cranial trachea, and trachea at the level of the fifth cervical vertebra.
The data for every measurement of luminal airway dimensions revealed robust positive associations with body weight (P < .001). The narrowest laryngotracheal measurement was the width at the level of the caudal thyroid cartilage/rostral cricoid cartilage, and the smallest cross-sectional area was at the rostral thyroid cartilage at the level of the arytenoids. There was a strong association between body weight and the likelihood of appropriate ETT fit. To have at least an 80% chance of appropriate ETT fit with a 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm ETT, the rabbits’ weight predicted by the model (lower 95% confidence limit) were at least 2.99 (2.72) kg, 5.24 (4.65) kg, and 5.80 (5.21) kg, respectively.
The laryngotracheal lumen was narrowest at the level of the caudal thyroid cartilage in rabbits, which indicates this location may be the limiting factor in determining ETT size in rabbits.