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Summary

Nine adult female sheep were each surgically fitted with an Ivan and Johnston reentrant cannula in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion (loss) of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to consistently induce hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, accompanied by hyponatremia and dehydration. Each sheep was subjected to 3 treatment trials, each preceded by a 24-hour prediversion period, and a diversion period during which a syndrome of hypochloremia (68 ± 2 mEq/L), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis was induced.

Development of this syndrome was attributable to losses of large amounts of acid and electrolytes in the abomasal effluent. Mean total electrolyte contents of the effluent were: Cl, 650 ± 27 mEq; Na+, 388 ± 23 mEq; and K+, 123 ± 12 mEq, with total volume loss ranging from 3.6 to 10.0 L of gastric contents and pH ranging from 3 to 5. Decreases in plasma electrolyte concentrations also can be attributed to decreased intake, because anorexia developed shortly after the onset of diversion. Electrolyte losses in urine during diversion were minimal for Cl (mean ± sem, 12.0 ± 5.1 mEq), but were greater for Na+ (124.2 ± 14.5 mEq) and K+ (185.1 ± 31.2 mEq).

Treatments consisted of 0.9% NaCl (300 mosm/L), 3.6% NaCl (1,200 mosm/L), and 7.2% NaCl (2,400 mosm/L) administered over a 2-hour period, with the administered volume determined by the estimated total extracellular fluid Cl deficit. Significant difference was not found among treatments, with all solutions resulting in return of clinicopathologic and physical variables to prediversion values within 12 hours of treatment. We concluded that rapid iv replacement of Cl, with small volumes of hypertonic saline solution, is safe and effective for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Intra-articularly administered, long-acting corticosteroids are a beneficial treatment for many equine joint disorders because they alleviate inflammation and signs of pain, but they also exert detrimental effects on the biochemical composition and morphologic features of articular cartilage. Chondroprotective drugs have been shown to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of intra-articularly administered corticosteroids on articular cartilage of laboratory animals. Twenty-one ponies were assigned at random to receive 1 of 3 treatments in the right middle carpal joint. Group-1 ponies (n = 8) had methylprednisolone acetate (mpa; 0.2 mg/kg of body weight) and saline solution administered intra-articularly and im, respectively. Group-2 ponies (n = 9) received mpa (0.2 mg/kg) and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (gag; 2 mg/kg). Group-3 ponies (control; n = 4) had saline solution administered intra-articularly and im. The corticosteroid or saline solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint on day 1. The im administered polysulfated gag or saline solution was administered at the same time, then was repeated every 3 days for 20 days. Ponies were euthanatized 21 days after initial injection by overdose of pentobarbital sodium.

The cartilage of younger ponies was significantly (P < 0.05) more responsive to the proteoglycan-depleting effects of mpa. Ponies < 10 years old of groups 1 and 2 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower gag content in the articular cartilage than did control ponies. Systemic treatment with polysulfated gag did not result in a protective effect against proteoglycan loss from the articular cartilage. Twenty-one days after mpa injection, difference in [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan, between either mpa-treated group and the control group, was not significant. There was an approximate tenfold increase in keratan sulfate concentration in synovial fluid from mpa-treated joints, compared with control joints. Chondroprotective effect of polysulfated gag on the basis of keratan sulfate release from the articular cartilage into the synovial fluid was not observed. Methylprednisolone acetate caused a decrease in the fibronectin content of articular cartilage, but there was no effect of polysulfated gag on the fibronectin content of mpa-treated articular cartilage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Radiographic and surgical findings were compared in 123 cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Radiography of the reticulum proved to be a sensitive test for detection of a foreign body (fb). An abnormal fb position on a radiograph was a good predictor of fb perforation. If an fb was fully attached to a magnet, it was unlikely to be perforating the reticular wall. When abnormal reticulum size, abnormal reticulum location, and gas shadows adjacent to the reticulum were found simultaneously on a radiograph, hepatic or perireticular abscess was likely. Reticular radiography proved to be a useful diagnostic aid in cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Clinical and surgical findings in 458 dairy cows with right displacement of the abomasum or abomasal volvulus (av) were analyzed to determine the association between these variables and the outcome (productive, salvaged, or terminal) of the affected cow.

Heart rate at initial examination was higher in the salvaged and terminal groups of cows (P < 0.0001) than in the productive group. The plasma Na+ concentration was lower in the salvaged and terminal groups of cows (P < 0.0001) than in the productive group. The plasma C1 concentration was lower in the salvaged group of cows than in cows with either productive or terminal outcomes (P < 0.0001). Anion gap was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the salvaged and terminal groups than in cows classified as productive.

On the basis of surgical findings, cattle with right displacement of the abomasum were more likely to survive than cows with av. Cows that required fluid decompression of the abomasum via abomasotomy were less likely to survive than those in which gaseous decompression was performed. Cows with evidence of vascular compromise of the abomasal wall were less likely to survive than those with normal abomasal serosa.

Preoperative heart rate and anion gap had positive correlations with the presence of abomasal necrosis, whereas temperature, venous blood pH, plasma bicarbonate, and base excess concentrations had negative correlations.

Cows in terminal stages of av were likely to have a mixed primary acid-base disturbance, consisting of metabolic alkalosis with superimposed metabolic acidosis. These findings were highly correlated with abomasal necrosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Data at admission and at surgery were collected on 458 cows with right displacement of the abomasum or abomasal volvulus, to derive multiple logistic regression models for predicting postsurgical outcome (productive, salvaged, or terminal). The derived models contained few and easily obtained variables. The weight associated with each variable was determined objectively. Three admission variables (heart rate, base excess, and plasma chloride concentration), and 5 surgical variables (heart rate, base excess, diagnosis, method of decompression used, and appearance of abomasal serosa) were used in the final models. Predicted outcomes that used the admission and surgical models were closely related with actual outcomes. Total correct classification for satisfactory (productive) versus unsatisfactory outcome (salvaged and terminal) was 78.2% for the admission model and 82.7% for the surgical model. Combining data on cows with productive and salvaged outcomes as satisfactory outcome, and terminal as unsatisfactory outcome, total correct classification was 90.7% for the admission model and 93.2% for the surgical model. Using predicted probabilities, the market value of productive and salvaged cows, and the medical and surgical costs, one can calculate the expected economic value of each outcome. Treatment can be justified if the sum of the expected value of productive and salvaged outcome exceeds the sum of the medical and surgical costs and the expected salvaged value of the cow that was not treated surgically.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Five adult 40- to 50-kg female sheep were surgically fitted with a reentrant cannulae placed in the proximal part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to produce hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by dehydration, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. Each sheep was subjected to 3 separate, 12-hour iv treatment trials, in each case preceded by a control period of 48 hours, and a diversion period of 36 to 96 hours, during which a hypochloremic (Cl ≤ 60 ± 2 mEq/L) metabolic alkalosis with hypokalemia and hyponatremia was produced.

Treatment 1, consisting of 6 L of isotonic Na gluconate, was designed to replace volume without replenishing the Cl deficit. Although hydration improved, plasma Cl decreased further, and the sheep became increasingly weak and depressed. Treatment 2, consisting of 2 L of 1.8% NaCl, was designed to replace the Cl deficit without replacing total volume. Plasma Na+ and Cl concentrations returned to normal during the 12 hours of treatment; acid-base balance and plasma K+ concentrations returned to normal within 36 hours of treatment. During treatment 3 (control, no treatment), measured metabolic values changed minimally. We concluded that the iv replacement of Cl without K+ is effective in the correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the association of physical examination and clinicopathologic findings with surgical findings in cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration, to determine short- and long-term survival rates in these cattle, and to determine whether degree of peritonitis (focal vs diffuse) influences survival rates.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

21 cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration and 42 cattle with uncomplicated abomasal displacement.

Procedure

Information on signalment, stage of lactation, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, surgical diagnosis, procedure(s) performed, and necropsy findings were retrieved from medical records of all cattle included in this study. Differences between physical examination findings of cattle with concurrent disease and those of cattle with uncomplicated displacements were evaluated, as were differences between survival rates in cattle with focal versus diffuse peritonitis.

Results

Cattle with concurrent disease had a greater probability of having pneumoperitoneum and signs of abdominal pain identified on physical examination than did cattle with uncomplicated diseases. There was no relationship between clinicopathologic data and survival time. Short-term survival rate was 38%, and degree of peritonitis significantly influenced survival time in cattle with concurrent abomasal displacement and perforating ulceration. Long-term survival rate in these cattle was 14%.

Clinical Implications

Cattle with concurrent displaced abomasum and perforating ulceration have a poor chance for survival. In addition to detection of displaced abomasum, physical examination findings that can help lead to a presurgical diagnosis of this syndrome are pneumoperitoneum and signs of abdominal pain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1442–1445)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association