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Objective

To assess parasite control and weight gain after administration of an ivermectin sustained-release bolus over 135 days to calves grazing in the midwestern United States.

Design

Replicated pasture study.

Animals

56 Bos taurus calves.

Procedure

Calves were matched for body weight and randomly allocated to remain untreated or to receive an ivermectin sustained-release bolus before turnout on day 0. Calves were grazed by treatment group on 8 pastures (4 replicates). Body weights and fecal egg counts were recorded on days −1 and 28, and then at 28-day intervals until day 168.

Results

Parasitism was not clinically evident prior to or during the study. In treated calves, mean fecal egg counts were at or near 0 at all posttreatment evaluations. Although the mean egg count exceeded 20 ova/g only once in control calves, the cumulative egg output was > 42 million/calf. For the treated group, it was < 0.1% of this number. Mean total weight gain was 33.9 kg (74.6 lb) greater for ivermectin-treated calves than for untreated control calves (P < 0.02); a 34% increase.

Clinical Implications

Fecal trichostrongyle eggs from calves can accumulate over a grazing season to provide enormous potential for augmenting pasture infectivity. An ivermectin sustained-release bolus (administered to calves being placed on pasture) controls parasitism, limits pasture infectivity, and can substantially influence growth by limiting the impact of subclinical parasitism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:754–756)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression.

CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare anamnestic antibody responses of dogs and cats with current versus out-of-date vaccination status.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—74 dogs and 33 cats.

Procedures—Serum samples were obtained from dogs and cats that had been exposed to rabies and brought to a veterinarian for proactive serologic monitoring or that had been brought to a veterinarian for booster rabies vaccination. Blood samples were collected on the day of initial evaluation (day 0) and then again 5 to 15 days later. On day 0, a rabies vaccine was administered according to label recommendations. Paired serum samples were analyzed for antirabies antibodies by means of a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.

Results—All animals had an antirabies antibody titer ≥ 0.5 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Dogs with an out-of-date vaccination status had a higher median increase in titer, higher median fold increase in titer, and higher median titer following booster vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Most (26/33) cats, regardless of rabies vaccination status, had a titer ≥ 12 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with out-of-date vaccination status were not inferior in their antibody response following booster rabies vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Findings supported immediate booster vaccination followed by observation for 45 days of dogs and cats with an out-of-date vaccination status that are exposed to rabies, as is the current practice for dogs and cats with current vaccination status.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2013, 53 reporting jurisdictions reported 5,865 rabid animals and 3 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 4.8% decrease from the 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human case reported in 2012. Ninety-two percent of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,898 raccoons (32.4%), 1,598 bats (27.2%), 1,447 skunks (24.7%), 344 foxes (5.9%), 247 cats (4.2%), 86 cattle (1.5%), and 89 dogs (1.5%). One human case was reported from Maryland. The infection was determined to have been transmitted via organ transplantation. Infection in the organ donor, a North Carolina resident, was retrospectively diagnosed. Both the organ donor and the organ recipient were infected with the raccoon rabies virus variant. The third human case, reported by Texas, involved a Guatemalan resident who was detained while crossing the US border. The infection was determined to be caused by a canine rabies virus variant that circulates in Central America.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

SUMMARY—During 2012, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human rabies case to the CDC, representing a 2.1% increase from the 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human cases reported in 2011. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,953 raccoons (31.7%), 1,680 bats (27.3%), 1,539 skunks (25.0%), 340 foxes (5.5%), 257 cats (4.2%), 115 cattle (1.9%), and 84 dogs (1.4%). Compared with 2011, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid cattle reported. One case of rabies involving a human was reported from California after the patient died abroad. The infection was determined to be a result of a rabies virus variant associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, with exposure occurring in California.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2016 in the United States.

DESIGN Observational study based on passive surveillance data.

ANIMALS All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2016.

PROCEDURES State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2016. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.

RESULTS During 2016, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 4,910 rabid animals to the CDC, representing a 10.9% decrease from the 5,508 rabid animals reported in 2015. Of the 4,910 cases of animal rabies, 4,487 (91.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,646 (33.5%) bats, 1,403 (28.6%) raccoons, 1,031 (21.0%) skunks, 313 (6.4%) foxes, 257 (5.2%) cats, 70 (1.4%) cattle, and 58 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.6% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2016, compared with the number submitted in 2015. No human rabies deaths were reported in 2016.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2015 in the United States.

DESIGN

Observational study based on passive surveillance data.

ANIMALS

All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2015.

PROCEDURES

State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2015. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.

RESULTS

During 2015, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 5,508 rabid animals to the CDC, representing an 8.7% decrease from the 6,033 rabid animals reported in 2014. Of the 5,508 cases of animal rabies, 5,088 (92.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,704 (30.9%) bats, 1,619 (29.4%) raccoons, 1,365 (24.8%) skunks, 325 (5.9%) foxes, 244 (4.4%) cats, 85 (1.5%) cattle, and 67 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.1% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2015, compared with the number submitted in 2014. Three human rabies deaths were reported in 2015, compared with only 1 in 2014. A 65-year-old man in Massachusetts was bitten by a rabid dog while abroad. A 77-year-old woman in Wyoming had contact with a bat. A 54-year-old man in Puerto Rico was bitten by a mongoose. The only connection among these 3 cases was that none received postexposure prophylaxis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1117–1130)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2017 in the United States.

DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of passive surveillance data.

ANIMALS All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the United States during 2017.

PROCEDURES State and territorial public health departments provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2017. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.

RESULTS During 2017, 52 jurisdictions reported 4,454 rabid animals to the CDC, representing a 9.3% decrease from the 4,910 rabid animals reported in 2016. Of the 4,454 cases of animal rabies, 4,055 (91.0%) involved wildlife species. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,433 (32.2%) bats, 1,275 (28.6%) raccoons, 939 (21.1%) skunks, 314 (7.0%) foxes, 276 (6.2%) cats, 62 (1.4%) dogs, and 36 (0.8%) cattle. There was a 0.4% increase in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2017, compared with the number submitted in 2016. Two human rabies deaths were reported in 2017, compared with none in 2016.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The overall number of reported cases of animal rabies has decreased over time. Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine percentages of domestic cats and dogs vaccinated against rabies, identify barriers to vaccination, and assess knowledge about rabies in a semirural New Mexico community after a skunk rabies outbreak.

Design—Cross-sectional, door-to-door, bilingual, community-based participatory survey.

Sample—366 residential properties in Eddy County, NM.

Procedures—The New Mexico Department of Health and CDC administered surveys and analyzed data.

Results—Individuals at 247 of the 366 residential properties participated in the survey. One hundred eighty of the 247 (73%) households owned a dog (n = 292) or cat (163). Cats were more likely than dogs to not have an up-to-date rabies vaccination status (prevalence ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 4.4). Cost and time or scheduling were the most frequently identified barriers to vaccination. One hundred sixty (65%) respondents did not know livestock can transmit rabies, 78 (32%) did not know rabies is fatal, and 89 (36%) did not know a bat scratching a person can be an exposure. Only 187 (76%) respondents indicated they would contact animal control if they saw a sick skunk, and only 166 (67%) indicated they would contact animal control if bitten by a dog they did not own.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that rabies vaccination prevalence among pet dogs and cats was low, despite the fact that the region had experienced a skunk rabies outbreak during the previous 2 years. In addition, substantial percentages of respondents did not have correct knowledge of rabies or rabies exposure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association