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Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of an orally administered corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid (flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine), and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

Animals—6 cats with asthma experimentally induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA).

Procedures—A randomized, crossover design was used to assess changes in the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA determined by use of ELISAs.

Results—Mean ± SE eosinophil percentages in BALF when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 ± 2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 ± 1.7%) were significantly lower than for the control treatment (33.7 ± 11.1%). We did not detect significant differences in airway hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in serum was significantly lower when cats were treated with prednisone (25.5 ± 5.4%), compared with values for the control treatment (63.6 ± 12.9%); no other significant differences were observed in content of BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered and inhaled corticosteroids decreased eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration of prednisone decreased the content of BGAspecific IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic immunologic effects were detected among treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered as an alternate method for decreasing airway inflammation in cats with asthma. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1121–1127)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

Animals—19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats.

Procedure—Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LTto- TP ratios were calculated.

Results—Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergensensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF, the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1449–1453)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether expression of inflammation-associated genes in leukocytes from horses with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases correlated with the type of disease and outcome.

Animals—10 healthy horses and 50 horses with GIT disease.

Procedures—A blood sample was collected from each healthy horse or horse with GIT disease (during admission to the hospital). Leukocytes were isolated, diluted to a standard concentration, and frozen until RNA extraction. Expression of 14 genes associated with inflammation was quantified by use of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay. Results were grouped by GIT disease type and disease outcome for comparison.

Results—Horses with GIT disease had colic of unknown etiology (n = 8 horses), GIT inflammation or strangulation (19), or nonstrangulating GIT obstruction (23). Among the 45 horses receiving treatment, 38 were discharged from the hospital, and 7 died or were euthanized. Compared with healthy horses, horses with colic of unknown etiology had similar gene expression. Significant differences in expression of the interleukin-8, leukocyte-selectin molecule, matrix metalloproteinase-9, platelet-selectin molecule, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Toll-like receptor 4, and tumor necrosis factor-A genes were detected between healthy horses and horses with GIT disease. Significant differences in expression of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-8, leukocyte-selectin molecule, matrix metalloproteinase-9, platelet-selectin molecule, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Toll-like receptor 4, and tumor necrosis factor-A genes were detected among healthy horses and horses grouped by disease outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inflammatory gene expression in leukocytes of horses with GIT disease appeared to be related to disease pathogenesis and prognosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effect of ex vivo exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of inflammatory genes in leukocytes from horses with gastrointestinal (Gl) disease and determine whether the pattern or magnitude of the response to LPS correlated with the type of disease and outcome.

Animals—49 horses with Gl disease and 10 healthy horses

Procedures—Leukocytes were isolated from blood samples and submitted to 3 protocols: immediate freezing, freezing after 4-hour incubation in medium, and freezing after 4-hour incubation in medium containing LPS. Expression of 14 genes associated with inflammation was assessed via PCR assay. Results were compared by disease type and outcome

Results—Horses with Gl disease had colic of unknown etiology (n = 8), Gl inflammation or strangulation (18), or nonstrangulating Gl obstruction (23). Among the 44 horses receiving treatment, 38 were discharged from the hospital and 6 died or were euthanized. Incubation of leukocytes in medium alone changed the expression of several genes. Incubation with LPS resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in leukocytes from healthy and sick horses. Leukocytes from horses with nonstrangulating obstruction and horses that survived had less pronounced LPS-induced increases in interleukin-10 expression than did cells from healthy horses. The opposite was evident for monocyte chemotactic protein-3.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No evidence existed for a reduced response of leukocytes from horses with gastrointestinal disease to ex vivo exposure to LPS. Leukocyte expression of inflammatory genes after ex vivo incubation with LPS appeared to be related to pathogenesis and prognosis. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1162—1169)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare immune responses following modified-live virus (MLV) vaccination at weaning after intranasal or SC administration of an MLV vaccine to beef calves at 2 or 70 days of age.

Animals—184 calves.

Procedures—Calves were allocated to 1 of 5 groups. The IN2 (n = 37) and IN70 (37) groups received an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza 3 virus intranasally and a Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida bacterin SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively. The SC2 (n = 36) and SC70 (37) groups received a 7-way MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1, BVDV2, BRSV, parainfluenza 3 virus, M haemolytica, and P multocida SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively; the control group (37) remained unvaccinated until weaning. All calves received the 7-way MLV vaccine SC at median ages of 217 (weaning) and 231 days. Serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers against BHV1, BVDV1, and BRSV and intranasal IgA concentrations were determined at median ages of 2, 70, 140, 217, and 262 days. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against BHV1, BRSV, BVDV1, and P multocida was determined for 16 calves/group.

Results—At median ages of 140 and 217 days, BVDV1 SNA titers were significantly higher for the SC70 group than those for the other groups. Intranasal IgA concentrations and CMI increased over time for all groups. Vaccination at weaning increased SNA titers and CMI in all groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC administration of an MLV vaccine to 70-day-old calves significantly increased BVDV1 antibody titers before weaning.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize transcription of profibrotic mediators in renal tissues of cats with ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

SAMPLE

Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (RI group) and 8 healthy control cats.

PROCEDURES

For cats of the RI group, both kidneys were harvested 6 months after ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in 1 kidney. For control cats, the right kidney was evaluated. All kidney specimens were histologically examined for fibrosis, inflammation, and tubular atrophy. Renal tissue homogenates underwent reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay evaluation to characterize gene transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Gene transcription and histologic lesions were compared among ischemic and contralateral kidneys of the RI group and control kidneys.

RESULTS

Ischemic kidneys had greater transcript levels of MMP-7, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β1 relative to control kidneys and of MMP-2 relative to contralateral kidneys. Transcription of TIMP-1 was upregulated and that of vascular endothelial growth factor A was downregulated in ischemic and contralateral kidneys relative to control kidneys. Transcription of HIF-1α did not differ among kidney groups. For ischemic kidneys, there were strong positive correlations between transcription of HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 and severity of fibrosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Transcription of genes involved in profibrotic pathways remained altered in both kidneys 6 months after transient renal ischemia. This suggested that a single unilateral renal insult can have lasting effects on both kidneys.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research