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Objective—To evaluate the musculoskeletal analgesic effect of etodolac administered PO every 12 or 24 hours in chronically lame horses by use of force plate analysis.

Animals—22 horses with navicular syndrome.

Procedure—Horses received etodolac (23 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; n = 7), etodolac (23 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h; 8), or corn syrup (20 mL, PO, q 24 h; control treatment; 7) for 3 days. Combined forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF) was measured via force plate analysis before the first treatment (baseline) and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after the last treatment. Differences in mean PVF (mPVF) between baseline and subsequent measurements were analyzed (repeated-measures ANOVA) and evaluated for treatment and time effects and treatment-time interaction.

Results—Once- or twice-daily administration of etodolac resulted in significant increases in mPVF from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the last treatment, compared with the control treatment. There were no significant differences in mPVF between the etodolac treatment groups at any time point. In both etodolac treatment groups, there was a significant increase in mPVF from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 hours, compared with that at 36 hours. Etodolac-associated adverse effects were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with navicular syndrome, once-daily oral administration of 23 mg of etodolac/kg appears to provide effective analgesia for as long as 24 hours. Twice-daily administration of etodolac at this same dose does not appear to provide any additional analgesic efficacy or duration of effect.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To use force plate analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacies of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administered IV at typical clinical doses in horses with navicular syndrome.

Animals—12 horses with navicular syndrome that were otherwise clinically normal.

Procedure—Horses received flunixin (1.1 mg/kg), phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl; 1 mL/45 kg) solution administered IV once daily for 4 days with a 14-day washout period between treatments (3 treatments/horse). Before beginning treatment (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 30 hours after the fourth dose of each treatment, horses were evaluated by use of the American Association of Equine Practitioners lameness scoring system (half scores permitted) and peak vertical force of the forelimbs was measured via a force plate.

Results—At 6, 12, and 24 hours after the fourth treatment, subjective lameness evaluations and force plate data indicated significant improvement in lameness from baseline values in horses treated with flunixin or phenylbutazone, compared with control horses; at those time points, the assessed variables in flunixin- or phenylbutazone-treated horses were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with navicular syndrome treated once daily for 4 days, typical clinical doses of flunixin and phenylbutazone resulted in similar significant improvement in lameness at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the final dose, compared with findings in horses treated with saline solution. The effect of flunixin or phenylbutazone was maintained for at least 24 hours. Flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone appear to have similar analgesic effects in horses with navicular syndrome. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:284–288)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research