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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs.

SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA).

PROCEDURES Histologic evaluations of tissue samples collected from implant sites at the time of plate retrieval were performed to confirm implant site tumor status of each dog. Surfaces and metallographic cross sections of retrieved plates were examined, and the microcell technique was used to obtain local electrochemical corrosion and ion release measurements.

RESULTS Findings indicated that all cast SS plates demonstrated high spatial variability of their electrochemical surface properties and inhomogeneous superficial and cross-sectional composition, compared with forged plates. Greater metal ion release was observed in cast plates than in forged plates and in cast plates from dogs with OSA than in cast or forged from dogs without OSA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that accumulation of metal ions from implants could be a trigger for neoplastic transformation in neighboring cells. Metal ion release caused by corrosion of implants that do not comply with recommended standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials International or the International Organization for Standardization could potentially place patients at increased risk of tumor development.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the material properties of Slocum TPLO plates and assess the soft tissue reaction adjacent to these plates in dogs that had undergone tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Sample Population—3 new TPLO plates, 8 retrieved TPLO plates, and 1 new Synthes dynamic compression plate.

Procedures—Metallurgic analyses were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved plates and submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All of the TPLO plates had a 2-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite in various amounts. Residua, inclusions, and cavities were seen during microscopic examination of the plate surface. The major differences between new and retrieved TPLO plates were the presence of small gaps separating many inclusions from the surrounding matrix and the presence of various-sized pits on the surface of the retrieved plates. The dynamic compression plate had a nearly pure austenitic structure and was largely free from residua, inclusions, and cavities. Histologic examination of tissue samples obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved TPLO plates revealed intra- and extracellular particulate debris. Two types of particles (one consisting of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and iron and the other consisting of aluminum and silicon) were seen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results determined that new and retrieved TPLO plates were manufactured from 316L stainless steel and produced by a casting process, but not all plates met specifications for chemical composition of cast surgical implants (American Society for Testing Materials standard F745); tissues surrounding retrieved plates had evidence of adverse reactions, probably as a result of plate corrosion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize osteolytic lesions in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) hospitalized for rehabilitation and describe methods used for the management of such lesions.

ANIMALS

25 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles hospitalized between 2008 and 2018.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of sea turtles with a diagnosis of osteolytic lesions were reviewed retrospectively to obtain the date of diagnosis, clinical signs, radiographic findings, microbial culture results, hematologic and plasma biochemical data, cytologic and histologic findings, antimicrobial history, time to first negative culture result, treatment duration, and outcome.

RESULTS

Lesions were identified radiographically a median of 50 days after admission and were located within epiphyses or metaphyses of various appendicular joints. Lesions were associated with periarticular swelling (n = 24), lameness (16), lethargy (2), and hyporexia (2). Bacterial culture yielded growth of single organisms (n = 16), multiple organisms (2), or no growth (6). Significant differences in hematologic and biochemical data were detected between the times of diagnosis and convalescence. Cytologic and histologic findings characterized the lesions as osteomyelitis leading to septic arthritis. Sixteen sea turtles were managed medically, and 8 were managed medically and surgically. Surgery resulted in rapid improvement in joint mobility and overall clinical status. Most (22/25 [88%]) sea turtles survived and were released after long-term management.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

During rehabilitation, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles may be affected by osteomyelitis. Medical management based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing was effective for most turtles. Long term management efforts in turtles are justified by high survival rate.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association