OBJECTIVE To determine whether a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach, applied before rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy of dogs, would decrease procedural nociception, minimize cardiorespiratory anesthetic effects, and improve recovery quality.
ANIMALS 8 healthy adult hound-type dogs
PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs received 0.5% bupivacaine (0.1 mL/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution as a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach. A 5-cm, 20-gauge over-the-needle catheter was placed retrograde within each infraorbital canal, and bupivacaine or saline solution was administered into each pterygopalatine region. Rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were performed. Variables monitored included heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations, purposeful movement, and pain scores. After a 14-day washout period, the other treatment was administered on the contralateral side, and rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were repeated.
RESULTS SAP, MAP, and DAP were significantly higher for the saline solution treatment than for the bupivacaine treatment, irrespective of the time point. Plasma cortisol concentrations after saline solution treatment were significantly higher 5 minutes after nasal biopsy than at biopsy. Heart rate, norepinephrine concentration, purposeful movement, and pain score were not significantly different between treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach prior to rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy reduced procedural nociception as determined on the basis of blood pressures and plasma cortisol concentrations during anesthesia. These findings warrant further evaluation in dogs with nasal disease.