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Eighteen random-bred cats with a total of 19 nasal or aural squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy, using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfhonate as the photosensitizer. Cats were irradiated at power densities of 100 mW/cm2 and energy densities of 100 J/cm2. Successful outcome was obtained in 10 tumors after 1 treatment, and 2 more tumors had complete responses after 1 or 2 additional treatments. Treatments were more effective in tumors of stage T2 or earlier. Five tumors had partial responses, and the response of 2 tumors could not be evaluated. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by most cats, although we found that cats should be kept out of sunlight for 2 weeks after treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses (QHs) on a single farm.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—148 horses.

Procedures—Neurologic, pathological, and toxicological evaluations were completed in selected neurologically affected horses over a 2-year period. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed.

Results—87 QHs and 1 QH-crossbred horse were affected. Most (50/88 [56.8%]) affected horses were 1 to 2 years old (median age, 2 years [range, 2 months to 34 years]). Neurologic deficits included obtundation (53/88 [60%] horses), decreased to absent menace response (33/88 [37.5%]), proprioceptive positioning deficits, wide-based stance, ataxia, and dysmetria (88/88 [100%]). Most (78/88 [88.6%]) horses had mild ataxia, but some (10/88 [11.4%]) had moderate to severe ataxia. Low serum concentrations of vitamin E (≤ 2 mg/L) were detected in 3 index case horses and 16 of 17 randomly selected horses (13/14 affected and 3/3 unaffected) during study year 1. Dietary vitamin E supplementation did not improve neurologic deficits in affected horses; vitamin E administration in pregnant mares appeared to decrease but not prevent disease development among offspring born the following year. Lesions detected at necropsy included bilaterally symmetric neuroaxonal degeneration with axonal spheroids in the nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus medialis, nucleus cuneatus lateralis, and nucleus thoracicus (5/5 horses).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neuroaxonal dystrophy should be considered in evaluation of young horses with ataxia and proprioceptive positioning deficits. Vitamin E deficiency may contribute to disease severity.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association