To compare image quality and acquisition time of corneal and retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) under 3 different sedation-anesthesia conditions in horses.
6 middle-aged geldings free of ocular disease.
1 randomly selected eye of each horse was evaluated via SD-OCT under the following 3 conditions: standing sedation without retrobulbar anesthetic block (RB), standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia with RB. Five regions of interest were evaluated in the cornea (axial and 12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock positions) and fundus (optic nerve head). Three diagnostic scans of predetermined quality were obtained per anatomical region. Image acquisition times and total scans per site were recorded. Corneal and retinal SD-OCT image quality was graded on a subjective scale from 0 (nondiagnostic) to 4 (excellent).
Mean values for the standing sedation without RB, standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia conditions were 24, 23, and 17, respectively, for total cornea scan attempts; 23, 19, and 19 for total retina-scan attempts; 14.6, 13.2, and 9.2 minutes for total cornea scan time; 19.1, 9.2, and 13.0 for total retina scan time; 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 for cornea grade; and 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 for retina grade.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The RB facilitated globe akinesia and improved the percentage of scans in frame and region of interest accuracy for retinal imaging via OCT in horses. Retrobulbar blocks improved clinical image acquisition while minimizing motion artifact.
To calculate the necessary pseudophakic intraocular lens (IOL) power to approximate emmetropia in adult tigers.
17 clinically normal adult tigers.
33 eyes of 17 clinically normal adult tigers underwent routine ophthalmic examination and B-scan ultrasonography while anesthetized for unrelated procedures. Specific ultrasound data (globe measurements and corneal curvature) and estimated postoperative IOL positions were utilized to calculate predicted IOL power by use of Retzlaff and Binkhorst theoretical formulas. Applanation tonometry and refraction were also performed.
Mean ± SD axial globe length was 29.36 ± 0.82 mm, preoperative anterior chamber depth was 7.00 ± 0.74 mm, and crystalline lens thickness was 8.72 ± 0.56 mm. Mean net refractive error (n = 33 eyes) was +0.27 ± 0.30 diopters (D). By use of the Retzlaff formula, mean predicted IOL power for the postoperative anterior chamber depth (PACD), PACD – 2 mm, and PACD + 2 mm was 43.72 ± 4.84 D, 37.62 ± 4.19 D, and 51.57 ± 5.72 D, respectively. By use of the Binkhorst equation, these values were 45.11 ± 4.91 D, 38.84 ± 4.25 D, and 53.18 ± 5.81 D, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure for all eyes was 14.7 ± 2.69 mm Hg.
The calculated tiger IOL was lower than reported values for adult domestic felids. Further studies evaluating actual PACD and pseudophakic refraction would help determine the appropriate IOL power to achieve emmetropia in this species.
Objective—To evaluate the anterior chamber approach and energy levels for endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECPC) and assess ECPC-induced tissue damage in phakic eyes of bovine cadavers.
Sample—12 bovine cadaver eyes.
Procedures—Angle of reach was measured in 6 eyes following placement of a curved endoscopic probe through multiple corneal incisions. In another 6 eyes, each ocular quadrant underwent ECPC at 1 of 3 energy levels (0.75, 0.90, and 1.05 J) or remained untreated. Visible effects on tissues (whitening and contraction of ciliary processes) were scored (scale of 0 [no effects] to 6 [severe effects]), and severity and extent of histologic damage to the pigmented and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and fibromuscular stroma were each scored (scale of 0 [no effect] to 3 [severe effect]) and summed for each quadrant. Overall mean scores for 6 quadrants/treatment were calculated.
Results—Mean ± SD combined angle of reach was 148 ± 24° (range, 123 ± 23° [ventromedial] to 174 ± 11° [dorsolateral]). At the 0.75-, 0.90-, and 1.05-J levels, mean visible tissue effect scores were 3.12 ± 0.47, 3.86 ± 0.35, and 4.68 ± 0.58, respectively; mean histologic damage scores were 4.79 ± 1.38 (mild damage), 6.82 ± 1.47 (moderate damage), and 9.37 ± 1.42 (severe damage), respectively. Occasional popping noises (venting of vaporized interstitial water) were heard at the 1.05-J level.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple incisions were necessary to facilitate 360° ECPC treatment in bovine eyes. For ECPC in vivo, the 0.75- and 0.90-J energy levels had the potential to effectively treat the ciliary epithelium.
Objective—To determine appropriate intraocular lens (IOL) implant strength to approximate emmetropia in horses.
Sample Population—16 enucleated globes and 4 adult horses.
Procedures—Lens diameter of 10 enucleated globes was measured. Results were used to determine the appropriate-sized IOL implant for insertion in 6 enucleated globes and 4 eyes of adult horses. Streak retinoscopy and ocular ultrasonography were performed before and after insertion of 30-diopter (D) IOL implants (enucleated globes) and insertion of 25-D IOL implants (adult horses).
Results—In enucleated globes, mean ± SD lens diameter was 20.14 ± 0.75 mm. Preoperative and postoperative refractive state of enucleated globes with 30-D IOL implants was −0.46 ± 1.03 D and −2.47 ± 1.03 D, respectively; preoperative and postoperative difference in refraction was 2.96 ± 0.84 D. Preoperative anterior chamber (AC) depth, crystalline lens thickness (CLT), and axial globe length (AxL) were 712 ± 0.82 mm, 11.32 ± 0.81 mm, and 40.52 ± 1.26 mm, respectively; postoperative AC depth was 10.76 ± 1.16 mm. Mean ratio of preoperative to postoperative AC depth was 0.68. In eyes receiving 25-D IOL implants, preoperative and postoperative mean refractive error was 0.08 ± 0.68 D and −3.94 ± 1.88 D, respectively. Preoperative AC depth, CLT, and AxL were 6.36 ± 0.22 mm, 10.92 ± 1.92 mm, and 38.64 ± 2.59 mm, respectively. Postoperative AC depth was 8.99 ± 1.68 mm. Mean ratio of preoperative to postoperative AC depth was 0.73.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Insertion of 30-D (enucleated globes) and 25-D IOL implants (adult horses) resulted in overcorrection of refractive error.