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  • Author or Editor: Rance M. Gamblin x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify variables associated with prognosis in dogs undergoing surgical excision of anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas (ASACs) with and without adjunctive chemotherapy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs with ASACs.

Procedures—Information on signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic procedures, surgical procedures, adjunctive therapies, survival time, and disease-free interval was obtained from the medical records.

Results—Survival time was significantly associated with the presence of sublumbar lymphadenopathy and sublumbar lymph node extirpation, with median survival time significantly shorter for dogs with sublumbar lymphadenopathy (hazard ratio, 2.31) than for those without and for dogs that underwent lymph node extirpation (hazard ratio, 2.31) than for those that did not. Disease-free interval was significantly associated with the presence of sublumbar lymphadenopathy, lymph node extirpation, and administration of platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents, with median disease-free interval significantly shorter for dogs with sublumbar lymphadenopathy (hazard ratio, 2.47) than for those without, for dogs that underwent lymph node extirpation (hazard ratio, 2.47) than for those that did not, and for dogs that received platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents (hazard ratio, 2.69) than for those that did not. Survival time and disease-free interval did not differ among groups when dogs were grouped on the basis of histopathologic margins (complete vs marginal vs incomplete excision).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with ASAC undergoing surgical excision, the presence of sublumbar lymphadenopathy and lymph node extirpation were both negative prognostic factors. However, completeness of surgical excision was not associated with survival time or disease-free interval.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine prevalence of p53 tumor suppressor protein overexpression in spontaneously arising tumors of dogs, using the CM-1 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemical methods.

Design and Sample Population

Retrospective analysis was performed on archived, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from dogs. A total of 226 tumors were evaluated, including tumors of epithelial, mesenchymal, and round cell origins.


Overexpression of p53 was detected by indirect immunohistochemical methods, using the CM-1 rabbit anti-human p53 polyclonal primary antibody. Protein overexpression was determined by use of a grading system based on percentage of stained tumor nuclei.


Nuclear overexpression of p53 was detected in most squamous cell carcinomas, nasal ade-nocarcinomas, and perianal gland adenocarcinomas. Hemangiopericytomas, transitional cell carcinomas, mammary adenocarcinomas, apocrine gland adenocarcinomas, intestinal adenocarcinomas, mast cell tumors, and cutaneous histiocytomas had low numbers of nuclei overexpressing p53. Remaining tumor types had intermediate p53 nuclear overexpression. Cytoplasmic staining was observed in some carcinomas, particularly intestinal adenocarcinomas.


Overexpression of p53 is common in spontaneously arising neoplasms of dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Prospective determination of p53 status in some tumor types may be as clinically useful in determining prognosis and predicting survival times for dogs with cancer as it is for human beings with cancer. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:857–863)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously occurring measurable malignant melanomas.

Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000 were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area. Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity were determined.

Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in 25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%. One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden). Median duration of partial response was 165 days. Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb] of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27 dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9 kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin had activity against macroscopic spontaneously occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1444–1448)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time.

Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days). Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 825–831)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association