To investigate the effects of orally administered trazodone on intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil diameter measured in the vertical plane (ie, vertical pupil diameter [VPD]), selected physical examination variables, and sedation level in healthy equids.
7 horses and 1 pony.
Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to drug administration. After baseline (time 0) sedation scoring, physical examination, and measurement of IOP and VPD, equids received 1 dose (approx 6 mg/kg) of trazodone orally. Examination and measurement procedures were repeated 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Blood samples were collected at each time point for analysis of plasma trazodone concentrations. Repeated-measures analysis was used to compare examination results between downstream time points and baseline.
7 of 8 equids had mild sedation from 0.5 to 8 hours after treatment; compared with baseline values, mean IOP was significantly lower from 0.5 hours to 8 hours, mean VPD was significantly smaller at 0.5 hours, and mean rectal temperature was significantly lower from 1 to 8 hours after drug administration. Adverse effects (signs of excitement in 1 equid and sweating in 4) were self-limiting and considered minor. Mean maximum plasma concentration of trazodone was 1,493 ng/mL 0.75 hours after administration, and terminal half-life of the drug was 9.96 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The described oral dose of trazadone elicited sedation with a few self-limiting adverse effects in the study sample. Drug effects on IOP and VPD may alter ocular examination findings. Further investigation is warranted prior to use of trazodone for sedation in equids, particularly those with ophthalmic conditions.
To evaluate the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of various combinations of acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, hydromorphone, and glycopyrrolate, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane in healthy dogs.
6 healthy adult female Beagles.
Dogs were instrumented for hemodynamic measurements while anesthetized with isoflurane. Two hours after recovery, dogs received 1 of 4 IM combinations in a crossover design with 1 week between treatments: hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.005 mg/kg; HA); hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine (0.0025 mg/kg; HD); hydromorphone, acepromazine, and dexmedetomidine (HAD); and hydromorphone, acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, and glycopyrrolate (0.02 mg/kg; HADG). Sedation was scored after 30 minutes. Physiologic variables and cardiac index were measured after sedation, after anesthetic induction with propofol, and every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane for 60 minutes (target expired concentration at 760 mm Hg, 1.3%).
Sedation scores were not significantly different among treatments. Mean ± SD cardiac index was significantly higher for the HA (202 ± 45 mL/min/kg) and HADG (185 ± 59 mL/min/kg) treatments than for the HD (88 ± 31 mL/min/kg) and HAD (103 ± 25 mL/min/kg) treatments after sedation and through the first 15 minutes of isoflurane anesthesia. No ventricular arrhythmias were noted with any treatment.
In healthy dogs, IM administration of HADG before propofol and isoflurane anesthesia provided acceptable cardiopulmonary function with no adverse effects. This combination should be considered for routine anesthetic premedication in healthy dogs.