OBJECTIVE To report the outcomes of horses with suspected nephrosplenic entrapment (NSE) of the large colon treated by IV phenylephrine administration and exercise with and without trocarization (ie, medical management).
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
ANIMALS 134 horses.
PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were searched to identify horses that underwent medical management for suspected NSE at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1995 and 2014. Demographic information, physical and ultrasonographic examination findings, treatment information (including the number of times the treatment was performed and patient response), surgical findings if applicable, complications, and patient outcome were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported.
RESULTS 72 horses had suspected NSE that resolved with medical treatment; 59 of 62 horses underwent laparotomy when medical management failed, and 3 were euthanized without surgery. Twenty-five of the 59 horses had confirmed NSE that was surgically corrected, and 34 had lesions other than or in addition to NSE. All horses that had surgically corrected NSE and 18 of 34 horses that had other lesions survived to hospital discharge. The odds of resolution of NSE with medical management were greater for horses that underwent ≤ 2 (vs > 2) treatments. The treatment success rate for horses that underwent trocarization was not greater than that for horses that did not have the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Suspected NSE resolved with the described medical management for most horses. However, results indicated the potential for misdiagnosis was high. Timely surgical intervention is recommended for horses that fail to respond to medical treatment.
Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters of enrofloxacin and a low dose of amikacin administered via regional IV limb perfusion (RILP) in standing horses.
Animals—14 adult horses.
Procedures—Standing horses (7 horses/group) received either enrofloxacin (1.5 mg/kg) or amikacin (250 mg) via RILP (involving tourniquet application) in 1 forelimb. Samples of interstitial fluid (collected via implanted capillary ultrafiltration devices) from the bone marrow (BMIF) of the third metacarpal bone and overlying subcutaneous tissues (STIF), blood, and synovial fluid of the radiocarpal joint were collected prior to (time 0) and at intervals after tourniquet release for determination of drug concentrations. For pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 μg/mL (amikacin) and 0.5 μg/mL (enrofloxacin) were applied.
Results—After RILP with enrofloxacin, 3 horses developed vasculitis. The highest synovial fluid concentrations of enrofloxacin and amikacin were detected at time 0; median values (range) were 13.22 μg/mL (0.254 to 167.9 μg/mL) and 26.2 μg/mL (5.78 to 50.0 μg/mL), respectively. Enrofloxacin concentrations exceeded MIC for approximately 24 hours in STIF and synovial fluid and for 36 hours in BMIF. After perfusion of amikacin, concentrations greater than the MIC were not detected in any samples. Effective therapeutic concentrations of enrofloxacin were attained in all samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with orthopedic infections, RILP of enrofloxacin (1.5 mg/kg) should be considered as a treatment option. However, care must be taken during administration. A dose of amikacin > 250 mg is recommended to attain effective tissue concentrations via RILP in standing horses.
To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots.
315 knots tied and tested in vitro.
United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws. A universal materials testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of suture and knots to failure, and the KHC, RKS, weight, and volume of knots were determined.
Forwarder knots had significantly higher KHC and RKS and lower volume, compared with surgeons’ knots. Forwarder knots tied with fat-exposed suture had greater weight, but not volume, than did forwarder knots tied with dry or BES-exposed suture with the same number of throws.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS.
Objective—To determine the lowest ACTH dose that would induce a maximum increase in serum cortisol concentration in healthy adult horses and identify the time to peak cortisol concentration.
Animals—8 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or 1 of 4 doses (0.02, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/kg [0.009, 0.045, 0.114, and 0.227 μg/lb]) of cosyntropin (synthetic ACTH) were administered IV (5 treatments/horse). Serum cortisol concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after injection of cosyntropin or saline solution; CBCs were performed before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after injection.
Results—For all 4 doses, serum cortisol concentration was significantly increased, compared with the baseline value, by 30 minutes after administration of cosyntropin; no significant differences were detected among maximum serum cortisol concentrations obtained in response to administration of doses of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/kg. Serum cortisol concentration peaked 30 minutes after administration of cosyntropin at a dose of 0.02 or 0.1 μg/kg, with peak concentrations 1.5 and 1.9 times, respectively, the baseline concentration. Serum cortisol concentration peaked 90 minutes after administration of cosyntropin at a dose of 0.25 or 0.5 μg/kg, with peak concentrations 2.0 and 2.3 times, respectively, the baseline concentration. Cosyntropin administration significantly affected WBC, neutrophil, and eosinophil counts and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in healthy horses, administration of cosyntropin at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg resulted in maximum adrenal stimulation, with peak cortisol concentration 30 minutes after cosyntropin administration.
Case Description—A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening dyspnea of 9 months' duration.
Clinical Findings—Multiple masses in the nasopharynx were detected via endoscopic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens of 1 mass revealed round yeasts with thick nonstaining capsules and occasional narrow-based budding that resembled cryptococcal organisms.
Treatment and Outcome—Oral administration of fluconazole and organic ethylenediamine dihydriodide and intermittent intralesional injections with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and formalin resulted in resolution of lesions for a period of 2.5 years. The horse then developed exophthalmos, recurring clinical signs, and extensive nasopharyngeal masses. The masses were surgically debulked via a large frontonasal bone flap, and the horse was treated with IV injections of amphotericin B and long-term oral administration of fluconazole. Clinical signs did not recur in the following 2-year period. A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made following cytologic and histologic evaluations of the masses; results of serologic analysis and fungal culture confirmed infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.
Clinical Relevance—Cryptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract in horses has previously been described as a uniformly fatal disease. As this case report illustrates, medical and surgical treatment of sinonasal cryptococcal granulomas in horses may be successful, but the importance of long-term follow-up and the potential for disease recrudescence should be considered. As efficacious antifungal agents become less expensive, their increased use will likely decrease mortality rates in horses with fungal infections.