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Abstract

Objective

To assess the cardiovascular effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine in healthy cats anesthetized with 2% isoflurane.

Animals

11 clinically normal cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and catheters were inserted for measurement of aortic, left ventricular, and right atrial pressures. For data collection, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was reduced to 2%, and end-tidal CO2 was maintained at 35 to 40 mm of Hg by use of positive-pressure ventilation. After measurement of baseline data, medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg of body weight, IM) was administered and data were collected continuously for 75 minutes. At the end of data collection, incisions were closed and cats were allowed to recover from anesthesia.

Results

Medetomidine significantly increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. The increase in mean arterial pressure was maximal at 17.8 ± 7 minutes after medetomidine administration. Medetomidine also increased left ventricular peak systolic pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and right atrial pressure. Medetomidine significantly decreased heart rate and mean aortic flow.

Conclusions

The low dosage of medetomidine (0.01 mg/kg, IM) promoted severe vasoconstriction in isoflurane-anesthetized cats, and resulted in sustained increases in left ventricular preload and afterload. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:509–513)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To enumerate the prevalence of Campylobacter isolates in the intestinal tract of market-weight swine raised in an integrated swine operation in Texas.

Sample Population

Samples of cecal contents were collected from 595 pigs (mean body weight, 110 kg [242 lb]) at time of slaughter. Pigs were offspring of Yorkshire-Landrace sows and Duroc or Hampshire boars. Pigs originated from 4 farrow-to-finish farms.

Procedure

During a 9-month period, visits were made to a slaughter plant to remove cecal contents from market-weight hogs. Samples were obtained from 50 pigs/visit from designated farms so that samples were obtained 3 times from pigs of each of 4 farms. Isolation of Campylobacter spp was accomplished by use of enrichment broth and restrictive media, using microaerophilic conditions.

Results

Campylobacter spp were isolated from 70 to 100% of the pigs, depending on the farm and the date the samples were collected. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 20 to 100% (mean, 60%) of samples, and C jejuni was isolated from 0 to 76% (mean, 31%) of samples. Campylobacter lari was isolated from 2 pigs. Concentrations of C coli or C jejuni ranged from 103 to 107 colony-forming units/g of cecal content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Campylobacter coli generally is accepted as a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of swine. However, analysis of results of this study suggests that a relatively high prevalence of C jejuni may be found in pigs raised on specific farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1601–1604)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the extent of leptospirosis in persons exposed to infected swine, confirm the source of disease, define risk factors for infection, and identify means for preventing additional infections during an outbreak in Missouri in 1998.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—240 people and 1,700 pigs.

Procedure—An epidemiologic investigation was conducted of people exposed to infected pigs from the University of Missouri-Columbia swine herd. The investigation included review of health of the pigs, a crosssectional study of the people handling the pigs, serologic testing of human and porcine sera, and risk-factor analysis for leptospirosis within the human population.

Results—Serologic testing of samples collected at the time of the investigation indicated that 59% of the pigs had titers to leptospires, denoting exposure. Of the 240 people in the exposed study population, 163 (68%) were interviewed, and of these, 110 (67%) submitted a blood sample. Nine (8%) cases of leptospirosis were confirmed by serologic testing. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis included smoking (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.39 to 137.74) and drinking beverages (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.30) while working with infected pigs. Washing hands after work was protective (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.81).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis is a risk for swine producers and slaughterhouse workers, and may be prevented through appropriate hygiene, sanitation, and animal husbandry. It is essential to educate people working with animals or animal tissues about measures for reducing the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:676–682)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association