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Objective—To evaluate the present and future supply of veterinarians in California, in light of changing trends in animal ownership.

Design—Database analysis.

Sample Population—Human and animal populations, including populations of veterinarians, throughout the United States.

Procedures—Data on animal and human populations were compiled from a number of sources, including the US Census Bureau, American Veterinary Medical Association, State of California Department of Finance, and State of California Veterinary Medical Board. The distribution of veterinarians in California was contrasted with other health professionals in California and with that of veterinarians in other states. Recent changes in veterinary medical demographics in California were quantified and used to develop in-state projections about the supply of veterinarians for the next 20 years.

Results—Although California is the most populous of the 50 states, only 7 states had fewer veterinarians per capita. Furthermore, California ranked next to last among states in increase of number of veterinarians between 1990 and 1995. Los Angeles County had the smallest per-capita number of veterinarians among 9 populous California counties. During that period, California had a net gain of only 6 veterinarians who were exclusively or predominantly large-animal or mixed-animal practitioners.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—If current trends continue, the per-capita number of veterinarians will continue to decrease in California. To maintain the current ratio of 17.8 veterinarians/100,000 people in California in the future, we estimate that an additional 50 veterinarians above the currently predicted increase will be required annually. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1753–1757)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine small animal veterinarians’ opinions and actions regarding costs of care, obstacles to client education about veterinary care costs, and effects of economic limitations on patient care and outcome and professional career satisfaction and burnout.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 1,122 small animal practitioners in the United States and Canada.

PROCEDURES An online survey was sent to 37,036 veterinarians. Respondents provided information regarding perceived effects of client awareness of costs and pet health insurance coverage on various aspects of practice, the influence of client economic limitations on professional satisfaction and burnout, and proposals for addressing those effects.

RESULTS The majority (620/1,088 [57%]) of respondents indicated that client economic limitations affected their ability to provide the desired care for their patients on a daily basis. Approximately half (527/1,071 [49%]) of respondents reported a moderate-to-substantial level of burnout, and many cited client economic limitations as an important contributing factor to burnout. Only 31% and 23% of respondents routinely discussed veterinary costs and pet insurance, respectively, with clients before pets became ill, and lack of time was cited as a reason for forgoing those discussions. Most respondents felt improved client awareness of veterinary costs and pet health insurance would positively affect patient care and client and veterinarian satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested most small animal practitioners believe the veterinary profession needs to take action at educational and organizational levels to inform pet owners and educate and train veterinary students and veterinarians about the costs of veterinary care.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To develop a prototype program for surveillance of causes of death of dogs, using resources developed for the World Wide Web, to enable collection of data from veterinarians in small animal practice and dissemination of results in a timely manner at minimal expense.


Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population

Small animal veterinarians who were members of NOAH, Veterinary Information Network (VIN), or VetPlus-L.


Internet electronic communications and Web pages were used for solicitation and collection of data, dissemination of results, and follow-up discussions with participants. Data were stored in a relational database.


25 veterinarians actively submitted case material. On the basis of analysis by region and school of veterinary medicine attended, these veterinarians were representative of all small animal practitioners in the United States. During the 6-month study, 621 case reports were submitted. Analysis of results included determination of number of dogs, with proportions calculated for primary reason for death, primary clinical sign, and breed, as well as creation of a map depicting distribution of the practitioners. Additional data were obtained for analysis to provide information of interest.

Clinical Implications

A national database representative of dogs examined by small animal practitioners would be a valuable source of information. Rapidly and easily accessible return of information and results is important for any surveillance system. The program described here appears to be a successful method for collecting data from practitioners. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:251-256)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association