Objective—To evaluate the present and future supply
of veterinarians in California, in light of changing
trends in animal ownership.
Sample Population—Human and animal populations,
including populations of veterinarians, throughout
the United States.
Procedures—Data on animal and human populations
were compiled from a number of sources, including
the US Census Bureau, American Veterinary Medical
Association, State of California Department of
Finance, and State of California Veterinary Medical
Board. The distribution of veterinarians in California
was contrasted with other health professionals in
California and with that of veterinarians in other
states. Recent changes in veterinary medical demographics
in California were quantified and used to
develop in-state projections about the supply of veterinarians
for the next 20 years.
Results—Although California is the most populous of
the 50 states, only 7 states had fewer veterinarians
per capita. Furthermore, California ranked next to last
among states in increase of number of veterinarians
between 1990 and 1995. Los Angeles County had the
smallest per-capita number of veterinarians among 9
populous California counties. During that period,
California had a net gain of only 6 veterinarians who
were exclusively or predominantly large-animal or
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—If current
trends continue, the per-capita number of veterinarians
will continue to decrease in California. To maintain
the current ratio of 17.8 veterinarians/100,000 people in
California in the future, we estimate that an additional
50 veterinarians above the currently predicted increase
will be required annually. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1753–1757)
Objective—To examine the effects of orally administered
L-lysine on clinical signs of feline herpesvirus
type 1 (FHV-1) infection and ocular shedding of FHV-1
in latently infected cats.
Animals—14 young adult, FHV-1-naive cats.
Procedure—Five months after primary conjunctival
inoculation with FHV-1, cats were rehoused and
assigned to receive 400 mg of L-lysine in food once
daily for 30 days or food only. On day 15, all cats
received methylprednisolone to induce viral reactivation.
Clinical signs of infection were graded, and viral
shedding was assessed by a polymerase chain reaction
assay throughout our study. Peak and trough plasma
amino acid concentrations were assessed on day
Results—Fewer cats and eyes were affected by conjunctivitis,
and onset of clinical signs of infection was
delayed on average by 7 days in cats receiving
L-lysine, compared with cats in the control group;
however, significant differences between groups
were not demonstrated. Significantly fewer viral
shedding episodes were identified in the treatment
group cats, compared with the control group cats,
after rehousing but not following corticosteroidinduced
viral reactivation. Mean plasma L-lysine concentration
was significantly increased at 3 hours but
not at 24 hours after L-lysine administration. Plasma
arginine concentration was not significantly altered.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Once daily
oral administration of 400 mg of L-lysine to cats latently
infected with FHV-1 was associated with reduced
viral shedding following changes in housing and husbandry
but not following corticosteroid administration.
This dose caused a significant but short-term increase
in plasma L-lysine concentration without altering plasma
arginine concentration or inducing adverse clinical
effects. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:37–42)
Objective—To determine the prevalence of tooth resorption in dogs and to evaluate whether a classification system for tooth resorption in humans is applicable in this species.
Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007
Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption was classified in accordance with radiographic criteria described for use in humans. Patient signalment and concurrent dental conditions were recorded and tabulated.
Results—Tooth resorption was detected in 120 of 224 (53.6%) dogs and 943 of 8,478 (11.1%) teeth. The classification system for use in humans was applicable in 908 of 943 (96.3%) affected teeth. Tooth resorption was more frequent among older and large-breed dogs; no significant differences were found among sex categories. The 2 most common types of tooth resorption were external replacement resorption (77/224 [34.4%] dogs and 736/8,478 [8.7%] teeth) and external inflammatory resorption (58/224 [25.9%] dogs and 121/8,478 [1.4%] teeth). External cervical root surface resorption was detected in 13 of 224 (5.8%) dogs; external surface resorption was detected in 10 of 224 (4.5%) dogs, and internal inflammatory resorption and internal surface resorption were detected in 9 of 224 (4.0%) and 1 of 224 (0.4%) dogs, respectively. Internal replacement resorption was not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The classification of tooth resorption in humans was applicable to tooth resorption in dogs. Resorption lesions, in general, and external replacement and external inflammatory resorption, in particular, were frequently detected in dogs.
Objective—To determine applicability of the 2007 American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC) classification method for determining extent of tooth resorption in dogs.
Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007.
Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption in dogs was classified in accordance with the radiographic criteria described for use in human teeth and, when applicable, the guidelines described in the 2007 AVDC classification method.
Results—851 of 943 (90.2%) affected teeth met the radiographic characteristics of 1 of the 5 stages of tooth resorption described by the AVDC classification method. Among tooth resorption types described for human teeth, the AVDC classification method was totally applicable (100%) in 17 teeth with external surface resorption, 21 teeth with external replacement resorption, and 736 teeth with external cervical root surface resorption, but it was applicable in only 56 of 121 (46.3%) teeth with external inflammatory resorption and none of the teeth with internal resorption.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The AVDC classification method was useful to describe the extent of tooth resorption in dogs, but it did not reflect the radiographic patterns and location of lesions. The AVDC classification method was applicable in some, but not all, of the teeth with various resorption types in dogs. The AVDC classification method could be adapted best to lesions that have radiographic patterns of external replacement resorption and external cervical root surface resorption.
OBJECTIVE To determine small animal veterinarians’ opinions and actions regarding costs of care, obstacles to client education about veterinary care costs, and effects of economic limitations on patient care and outcome and professional career satisfaction and burnout.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 1,122 small animal practitioners in the United States and Canada.
PROCEDURES An online survey was sent to 37,036 veterinarians. Respondents provided information regarding perceived effects of client awareness of costs and pet health insurance coverage on various aspects of practice, the influence of client economic limitations on professional satisfaction and burnout, and proposals for addressing those effects.
RESULTS The majority (620/1,088 [57%]) of respondents indicated that client economic limitations affected their ability to provide the desired care for their patients on a daily basis. Approximately half (527/1,071 [49%]) of respondents reported a moderate-to-substantial level of burnout, and many cited client economic limitations as an important contributing factor to burnout. Only 31% and 23% of respondents routinely discussed veterinary costs and pet insurance, respectively, with clients before pets became ill, and lack of time was cited as a reason for forgoing those discussions. Most respondents felt improved client awareness of veterinary costs and pet health insurance would positively affect patient care and client and veterinarian satisfaction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested most small animal practitioners believe the veterinary profession needs to take action at educational and organizational levels to inform pet owners and educate and train veterinary students and veterinarians about the costs of veterinary care.
Objective—To determine reference values, intertest correlations, and test-retest repeatability of Schirmer tear test 1 (STT-1), phenol red thread test (PRTT), tear film breakup time (TFBUT), tear osmolarity, and meibometry in healthy cats.
Animals—135 healthy domestic cats aged 0.5 to 12.8 years.
Procedures—Each test was performed once in 120 cats and repeated in 40. Pearson correlation was used to assess correlation among tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were used to evaluate test-retest repeatability.
Results—Median (95% central range) values were 18 mm/min (9 to 34 mm/min) for STT-1, 29 mm/15 s (15 to 37 mm/15 s) for PRTT, 12.4 seconds (9.1 to 17.7 seconds) for TFBUT, 322 mOsm/L (297 to 364 mOsm/L) for osmolarity, and 32 meibometry units (MU; 11 to 114 MU) for peak meibometry value. The STT-1 and PRTT values were positively correlated. Age was weakly associated with TFBUT and osmolarity. Meibometry measurements were higher for strips that contacted the tear film (285 MU) than for those that touched the eyelid margin only (32 MU). All ICCs were < 0.75, and 95% LOA were wide.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear deficiency should be suspected in cats with STT-1 < 9 mm/min, PRTT < 15 mm/15 s, or TFBUT < 9 to 10 seconds. Generally poor correlation among tests suggested that thorough tear film analysis requires performance of multiple tests in concert. Relatively poor test-retest repeatability should be considered when repeated tests are used to monitor tear film dysfunction and response to treatment.
Objective—To quantify incidence of vaccination practices,
postvaccinal reactions, and vaccine site-associated
sarcomas in cats.
Animals—31,671 cats vaccinated in the United
States and Canada by veterinarians with World Wide
Procedure—Veterinarians used secure Web-based
survey forms to report data regarding administered
vaccines, postvaccinal inflammatory reactions, vaccine
site-associated sarcomas, and detailed information
and history on each sarcoma. Data were collected
from Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2000, allowing a 1- to
3-year follow-up of vaccinated cats.
Results—Participants reported administering 61,747
doses of vaccine to 31,671 cats; postvaccinal inflammatory
reactions developed in 73 cats (11.8 reactions/
10,000 vaccine doses), and qualifying vaccine
site-associated sarcomas developed in 2 cats (0.63
sarcomas/10,000 cats; 0.32 sarcomas/10,000 doses
of all vaccines).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings
indicate that the incidence of vaccine site-associated
sarcomas is low and is not increasing.
Thoughtful consideration of the relative risks and benefits
of specific vaccines remains the best means of
reducing the incidence of sarcomas. It is not necessary
to remove postvaccinal granulomas unless
malignant behavior is apparent or they persist > 4
months. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1477–1482)
Objective—To determine prevalence of initial clinical
signs and risk factors for acquired myasthenia gravis
(MG) in cats.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—105 cats from the United States, Canada,
and the United Kingdom with a confirmed diagnosis
of acquired MG and 510 cats with other neuromuscular
disorders, including generalized weakness,
megaesophagus, and dysphagia (control group).
Procedures—Records were retrieved from a database
containing results of serum samples tested for
acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Signalment, including
breed, age, and state or country of origin, month
of onset, and initial clinical signs were obtained. An
acetylcholine receptor antibody titer > 0.3 nmol/L was
diagnostic for acquired MG. Unconditional logistic
regression was used for statistical analysis.
Results—Compared with mixed-breed cats, the
breed with the highest relative risk of acquired MG
was the Abyssinian (including Somali). Significant differences
between sexes were not detected. There
was no compelling evidence for a difference in risk of
developing MG between states or countries. Relative
risk increased after 3 years of age. The most common
clinical signs were generalized weakness without
megaesophagus and weakness associated with a cranial
mediastinal mass. Focal signs, including megaesophagus
and dysphagia without signs of generalized
weakness, were also evident.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A breed predisposition
for acquired MG in Abyssinians (and related
Somalis) was observed. Clinical signs were variable
and included generalized weakness, megaesophagus,
and dysphagia. A cranial mediastinal
mass was commonly associated with MG in cats. ( J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:55–57)
Objective—To compare effects of isoflurane and propofol on the cystometrogram and urethral pressure profile (UPP) in healthy female cats.
Animals—6 healthy female cats.
Procedures—Cats were anesthetized, and a consistent plane of anesthesia was maintained with low and high doses of isoflurane and propofol. A 6-F double-lumen urinary catheter was placed aseptically in the urethra for cystometrogram and UPP measurements. Threshold pressure and volume were recorded for cystometrograms. Maximum urethral pressure for smooth and skeletal muscle portions of the urethra, maximum urethral closure pressure, and functional profile length were measured during each UPP measurement. Heart rate and respiratory rate were recorded.
Results—Cats anesthetized with the low dose of propofol had consistent detrusor reflexes, compared with results for the other anesthetics. Mean ± SD threshold pressure, volume per unit of body weight, and compliance were 75.7 ± 16.3 cm H2O, 8.3 ± 3.2 mL/kg, and 0.5 ± 0.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively, for low-dose propofol. Anesthesia with either dose of propofol caused a significantly higher percentage change in heart rate during the cystometrogram, compared with results for anesthesia with isoflurane. Maximal urethral pressure in the area corresponding to skeletal muscle and the maximum urethral closure pressure were significantly higher for the low dose of propofol, compared with results for the high dose of propofol.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The low-dose propofol regimen was the easiest to titrate and maintain and yielded diagnostic-quality detrusor reflexes in all 6 cats. Anesthetic depth should be titrated appropriately when performing urodynamic procedures.
Objective—To determine elemental composition of
teeth with and without odontoclastic resorption
lesions (ORL) in cats.
Sample Population—Normal teeth from 22 cadaver
cats and ORL-affected teeth from 21 cats admitted to
the veterinary hospital for dental treatment.
Procedure—An electron microprobe was used to
analyze weight percentages of calcium, phosphorus,
fluorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, and
iron in enamel, dentin, and cementum.
Results—Calcium and phosphorus were the most
abundant elements. Fluorine, sodium, and magnesium
combined were < 5% and sulfur, potassium,
and iron combined were < 0.1% of total elemental
composition. In enamel of normal teeth, a significant
sex-by-jaw location interaction was seen in mean
(± SD) phosphorus content, which was higher in
mandibular teeth of females (17.64 ± 0.41%) but
lower in mandibular teeth of males (16.71 ± 0.83%).
Mean iron content in dentin of normal teeth was significantly
lower in mandibular teeth than maxillary
teeth (0.014 ± 0.005% vs 0.023 ± 0.019%). Mean
enamel sodium content was significantly higher
(0.77 ± 0.046% vs 0.74 ± 0.025) and mean enamel
iron content was significantly lower (0.017 ± 0.008%
vs 0.021 ± 0.005%) in ORL-affected teeth, compared
with normal teeth. In cementum, mean fluorine content
was significantly lower (2.98% ± 0.27 vs 2.99 ±
0.20%) and mean magnesium content was significantly
lower (0.54 ± 0.13% vs 0.60 ± 0.13%) in ORLaffected
teeth, compared with normal teeth.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our
study establish baseline mineral content of enamel,
dentin, and cementum for normal teeth in cats.
Minimal differences in mineral content of enamel and
cementum of normal and ORL-affected teeth were
detected. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:546–550)