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  • Author or Editor: Peter W. Kronen x
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Objective—To investigate effects of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the forelimb of ponies as a method for quantifying anesthetic potency.

Animals—7 healthy adult Shetland ponies.

Procedure—Individual MAC (iMAC) for isoflurane was determined for each pony. Then, effects of isoflurane administered at 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05 iMAC on the NWR were assessed. At each concentration, the NWR threshold was defined electromyographically for the common digital extensor and deltoid muscles by stimulating the digital nerve; additional electrical stimulations (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mA) were delivered, and the evoked activity was recorded and analyzed. After the end of anesthesia, the NWR threshold was assessed in standing ponies.

Results—Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.0 ± 0.2%. The NWR thresholds for both muscles increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner during anesthesia, whereas they decreased in awake ponies. Significantly higher thresholds were found for the deltoid muscle, compared with thresholds for the common digital extensor muscle, in anesthetized ponies. At each iMAC tested, amplitudes of the reflex responses from both muscles increased as stimulus intensities increased from 3 to 40 mA. A concentration-dependent depression of evoked reflexes with reduction in slopes of the stimulus-response functions was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthetic-induced changes in sensory-motor processing in ponies anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of approximately 1.0 MAC can be detected by assessment of NWR. This method will permit comparison of effects of inhaled anesthetics or anesthetic combinations on spinal processing in equids.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland of healthy sexually intact adult dogs as determined by use of diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted MRI.


12 healthy sexually intact adult Beagles.


Ultrasonography of the prostate gland was performed. Subsequently, each dog was anesthetized, and morphological, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the caudal aspect of the abdomen was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated for the prostate gland parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images in the central ventral and peripheral dorsal areas. Perfusion variables were examined in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the ventral and dorsal areas of the prostate gland and in the gluteal musculature. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI.


Results of ultrasonographic examination of the prostate gland revealed no abnormalities for any dog. Median apparent diffusion coefficient of the prostate gland was 1.51 × 10−3 mm2/s (range, 1.04 × 10−3 mm2/s to 1.86 × 10−3 mm2/s). Perfusion-weighted MRI variables for the ROIs differed between the prostate gland parenchyma and gluteal musculature.


Results provided baseline information about diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland in healthy sexually intact adult dogs. Additional studies with dogs of various ages and breeds, with and without abnormalities of the prostate gland, will be necessary to validate these findings and investigate clinical applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research