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  • Author or Editor: Patricia Queiroz-Castro x
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Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, magnesium sulfate, and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO-MAC) in goats.

Animals—8 adult goats.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane delivered via face mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain normocapnia. After an appropriate equilibration period, baseline MAC (MACB) was determined and the following 4 treatments were administered IV: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (loading dose [LD], 30 mL/20 min; constant rate infusion [CRI], 60 mL/h), magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h), ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min), and magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h) combined with ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min); then MAC was redetermined.

Results—Ketamine significantly decreased ISOMAC by 28.7 ± 3.7%, and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate significantly decreased ISOMAC by 21.1 ± 4.1%. Saline solution or magnesium sulfate alone did not significantly change ISOMAC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate, at doses used in the study, decreased the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain anesthesia, verifying the clinical impression that ketamine decreases the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain surgical anesthesia. Magnesium, at doses used in the study, did not decrease ISOMAC or augment ketamine's effects on ISOMAC.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To investigate the cytotoxic effects of 2 different concentrations of buprenorphine and compare them with bupivacaine and morphine on healthy equine chondrocytes in vitro.


Primary cultured equine articular chondrocytes from 3 healthy adult horses.


Chondrocytes were exposed for 0 and 2 hours to the following treatments: media (CON; negative control); bupivacaine at 2.2 mg/mL (BUPI; positive control); morphine at 2.85 mg/mL (MOR); buprenorphine at 0.12 mg/mL (HBUPRE); or buprenorphine at 0.05 mg/mL (LBUPRE). Chondrocyte viability was assessed using live/dead staining, water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8 (WST-8) cytotoxic assay, LDH assay, and flow cytometry. All continuous variables were evaluated with a mixed ANOVA with treatment, time, and their interactions as the fixed effects and each horse as the random effect.


Buprenorphine showed a concentration-dependent chondrotoxic effect. The viability of chondrocytes was significantly decreased with exposure to HBUPRE and BUPI compared to CON, MOR, and LBUPRE.


Negligible chondrotoxic effects were observed in healthy cultured equine chondrocytes exposed to 0.05 mg/mL of buprenorphine, whereas higher concentrations (0.12 mg/mL) showed a marked cytotoxic effect. Based on these results, low concentrations of buprenorphine appear to be safe for intra-articular administration. Further evaluation of this dose in vivo is needed before recommending its clinical use.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research