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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features of horses with bacterial meningitis or brain abscesses secondary to infectious disease processes involving the head.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—7 adult horses.

Procedure—Medical records of Tufts University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center (Lexington, Ky) were reviewed to identify adult (> 12 months old) horses in which a postmortem diagnosis of bacterial meningitis or brain abscess had been made. Horses were included in the study if an intracranial infection was confirmed, the horse had a primary infectious disease process involving the head, and there were no signs of systemic infection.

Results—23 adult horses with bacterial meningitis or a brain abscess were examined during the study period, but only 7 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Primary sites of infection included the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, periocular tissues, and submandibular lymph nodes. Three horses died suddenly prior to hospitalization, and 1 horse was hospitalized but died 7 days after the onset of neurologic abnormalities. The remaining 3 horses were euthanatized because of a rapid deterioration in clinical status.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although rare, fatal intracranial complications can develop in horses with infectious diseases involving the head. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:739–742)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether photoreceptor outer segments can be found in aqueous humor from dogs with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).

Design

Case series.

Animals

4 dogs with unilateral RRD, 2 dogs with bilateral RRD, 1 dog with unilateral non-RRD, and 1 dog with glaucoma without retinal detachment.

Procedure

Aqueous humor samples were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and examined by means of transmission electron microscopy.

Results

Outer segments were found in aqueous humor from 7 of 8 eyes with RRD but were not found in aqueous humor from dogs with non-RRD or glaucoma.

Clinical Implications

Photoreceptor outer segments may move into the anterior chamber of eyes with RRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1254–1256)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topical application of undiluted heterologous serum on time to corneal reepithelialization in dogs with superficial chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs).

DESIGN Multicenter, randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 41 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES After collection of baseline clinical and historical data, dogs were randomly assigned to receive topically applied undiluted heterologous serum (n = 22) or isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (19) along with tobramycin and atropine. Epithelial debridement (at all visits) and grid keratotomy (at visits 2, 3, and 4) of SCCEDs were performed. Ophthalmic examination including fluorescein application was performed once weekly for 4 weeks or until corneal reepithelialization. Clinicians and owners were masked to treatment group.

RESULTS No differences in baseline data were detected between treatment groups. No difficulties with medication administration, noncompliance, or adverse reactions were noted. All SCCEDs in both groups healed by 4 weeks after treatment began. Median time to reepithelialization (2 weeks) was not significantly different between serum-treated and placebo-treated eyes. Irrespective of treatment group, median time to reepithelialization was not significantly different for Boxers versus non-Boxer breeds. Direct correlations were detected between time to reepithelialization and vascularization score at study entry, vascularization score at time of reepithelialization, and ulcer area at study entry in both groups. Time to reepithelialization was not correlated with age, sex, or duration of signs in either group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical application of undiluted heterologous serum was well tolerated by dogs with SCCEDs but, as an adjunct to standard treatment, did not reduce time to corneal reepithelialization.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association