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OBJECTIVE To characterize and identify risk factors for intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) in Pekingese.

DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 426 Pekingese (81 with confirmed IVDE and 345 without IVDE) admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital from 2005 through 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data were extracted regarding age, sex, body weight, body condition score, coat color, chief reason for initial evaluation, body system involved, and diagnosis. Survey radiographs of the vertebral column were examined. Data were compared between the confirmed IVDE and non-IVDE groups.

RESULTS Confirmed IVDE was uncommon in dogs < 2 years of age (2/81 [2%]). The extrusion was primarily located in the thoracolumbar (n = 57 [70%]) and cervical (22 [27%]) regions; the most common sites were T12–13 and C6–7. The number of radiographically visible calcified disks was significantly greater in the confirmed IVDE versus non-IVDE group, and the presence of calcified disks in the T10-L4 region was associated with increased odds of IVDE (OR, 21.2). Black coat color was significantly more prevalent in the confirmed IVDE versus non-IVDE group and was associated with increased odds of developing IVDE (OR, 1.6). Mean body weight and the proportion of spayed female dogs were significantly greater in the confirmed IVDE versus non-IVDE group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several risk factors for confirmed IVDE in Pekingese were identified that could be useful for counseling clients about the disease or, with additional research, designing selective breeding programs to reduce the prevalence of IVDE in the breed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings and outcomes in dogs with head trauma and design a prognostic scale.

ANIMALS 27 dogs admitted to the Koret School Veterinary Teaching Hospital within 72 hours after traumatic head injury that underwent CT imaging of the head.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding dog signalment, history, physical and neurologic examination findings, and modified Glasgow coma scale scores. All CT images were retrospectively evaluated by a radiologist unaware of dog status. Short-term (10 days after trauma) and long-term (≥ 6 months after trauma) outcomes were determined, and CT findings and other variables were analyzed for associations with outcome. A prognostic CT-based scale was developed on the basis of the results.

RESULTS Cranial vault fractures, parenchymal abnormalities, or both were identified via CT in 24 of 27 (89%) dogs. Three (11%) dogs had only facial bone fractures. Intracranial hemorrhage was identified in 16 (59%) dogs, cranial vault fractures in 15 (56%), midline shift in 14 (52%), lateral ventricle asymmetry in 12 (44%), and hydrocephalus in 7 (26%). Hemorrhage and ventricular asymmetry were significantly and negatively associated with short- and long-term survival, respectively. The developed 7-point prognostic scale included points for hemorrhage, midline shift or lateral ventricle asymmetry, cranial vault fracture, and depressed fracture (1 point each) and infratentorial lesion (3 points).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings reported here may assist in determining prognoses for other dogs with head trauma. The developed scale may be useful for outcome assessment of dogs with head trauma; however, it must be validated before clinical application.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the effect on seizure frequency of add-on telmisartan treatment in dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy.


11 client-owned dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and ≥ 2 generalized seizures/mon that were currently being treated with ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs.


Telmisartan was administered at a dosage of 0.25 to 1 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 4 to 16 months. Seizure frequencies before and during telmisartan treatment were recorded.


10 dogs completed the 4-month treatment protocol. One dog was excluded owing to a transient increase in serum creatinine concentration; no adverse effects of telmisartan were observed in the remaining 10 dogs. A reduction in seizure frequency greater than an estimated expected placebo effect of 30% was evident in 7 of the 10 dogs. Long-term (12 to 16 months) follow-up information was available for 6 dogs, of which 4 had a further reduction in seizure frequency. Differences in seizure frequency were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found in serum phenobarbital concentration throughout the treatment period in the 7 dogs that were tested.


Telmisartan has the potential to reduce seizure frequency when administered as an add-on antiepileptic drug in dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial is needed to determine the true efficacy of telmisartan. On the basis of our results, a sample size of 54 dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy would be needed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association