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  • Author or Editor: Nolie K. Parnell x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether soybean oil emulsion has an in vitro effect on platelet aggregation and thromboelastography in blood samples obtained from healthy dogs.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from each dog into tubes containing EDTA, hirudin, or sodium citrate for a CBC, collagen- and ADP-induced impedance aggregometry, or thromboelastography, respectively. Whole blood platelet aggregation, determined with ADP or collagen agonists, was measured in blood samples containing hirudin and final lipid concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/mL. The thromboelastographic variables R (reaction time), K (clotting time), α angle, and maximum amplitude were evaluated in blood samples containing sodium citrate and final lipid concentrations equivalent to those used for assessment of platelet aggregation.

Results—Median maximum ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation in blood samples containing 1, 10, or 30 mg of lipid/mL did not differ significantly from the value for the respective lipid-free blood sample. Maximum amplitude determined via thromboelastography was significantly reduced in blood samples containing 10 and 30 mg of lipid/mL, compared with findings for lipid-free blood samples. Values of other thromboelastographic variables did not differ, regardless of lipid concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maximum amplitude determined via thromboelastography in canine blood samples was significantly affected by the addition of lipid to final concentrations that are several orders of magnitude higher than clinically relevant lipid concentrations in dogs. Lipid treatment appears to have no significant effect on hemostatic variables in dogs, although clinical studies should be performed to confirm these in vitro findings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinicopathologic features, response to treatment, and risk factors associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with idiopathic neutropenia were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, and response to treatment were recorded and compared with that in dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes and to dogs without neutropenia (controls).

Results—Compared with dogs with neutropenia attributable to known causes, dogs with idiopathic neutropenia had lower neutrophil counts and were younger. When compared with control dogs, age < 4 years was identified as a risk factor for developing idiopathic neutropenia. In all dogs with idiopathic neutropenia, remission of neutropenia occurred within 18 days after administration of prednisone (2 to 4 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, daily) and no serious complications or infections developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An immunemediated pathogenesis should be considered for dogs with idiopathic neutropenia in which the cause is not known. Severe neutropenia and young age were significantly associated with idiopathic neutropenia in dogs. Prognosis appeared to be excellent with prednisone treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia or methylmalonic acidemia (or both) in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

Sample—Serum samples from 56 dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 43 control dogs.

Procedures—Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were measured in all samples and compared between groups. A correlation between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations and the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index was evaluated via the Spearman rank correlation.

Results—20 of 56 (36%) dogs with gastrointestinal disease had hypocobalaminemia. Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with gastrointestinal disease than in control dogs. Five of 56 (9%) dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 5 of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased MMA concentrations. There was a significant negative correlation (Spearman r = −0.450) between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease. No correlation was found between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum cobalamin or MMA concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicated the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease was 20 of 56 (36%). Five of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased serum MMA concentrations, which indicated that although hypocobalaminemia was common in these dogs, it did not always appear to be associated with a deficiency of cobalamin on a cellular level. Hypocobalaminemia is a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and should be considered in every patient with corresponding clinical signs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association