Objective—To evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects of IV administration of propofol (4 mg/kg), ketamine hydrochloride and propofol (2 mg/kg each; K-P), or ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg; K-D) before and after induction of anesthesia (IoA) in dogs sedated with acepromazine maleate and oxymorphone hydrochloride.
Animals—10 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—Each dog was randomly allocated to receive 2 of 3 treatments (1-week interval). For instrumentation prior to each treatment, each dog was anesthetized with isoflurane. After full recovery, acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg) and oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) were administered IV. Fifteen minutes later (before IoA), each dog received treatment IV with propofol, K-P, or K-D. Cardiorespiratory and arterial blood gas variables were assessed before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after IoA.
Results—Compared with findings before IoA, dogs receiving the K-P or K-D treatment had increased cardiac output, oxygen delivery, and heart rate 5 minutes after IoA; K-P administration did not change mean arterial blood pressure or stroke volume and decreased systemic vascular resistance. Propofol decreased mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance immediately after IoA but did not change heart rate, cardiac output, or oxygen delivery. All treatments caused some degree of apnea, hypoventilation, and hypoxemia (Pao2 < 80 mm Hg).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, K-P treatment maintained mean arterial blood pressure better than propofol alone and increased heart rate, cardiac output, or oxygen delivery, as did the K-D treatment. Supplemental 100% oxygen should be provided during IoA with all 3 treatments.
Objective—To identify ventilatory protocols that yielded good image quality for thoracic CT and hemodynamic stability in cats.
Animals—7 healthy cats.
Procedures—Cats were anesthetized and ventilated via 4 randomized protocols (hyperventilation, 20 seconds [protocol 1]; single deep inspiration, positive inspiratory pressure of 15 cm H2O [protocol 2]; recruitment maneuver [protocol 3]; and hyperventilation, 20 seconds with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O [protocol 4]). Thoracic CT was performed for each protocol; images were acquired during apnea for protocols 1 and 3 and during positive airway pressure for protocols 2 and 4. Heart rate; systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures; blood gas values; end-tidal isoflurane concentration; rectal temperature; and measures of atelectasis, total lung volume (TLV), and lung density were determined before and after each protocol.
Results—None of the protocols eliminated atelectasis; the number of lung lobes with atelectasis was significantly greater during protocol 1 than during the other protocols. Lung density and TLV differed significantly among protocols, except between protocols 1 and 3. Protocol 2 TLV exceeded reference values. Arterial blood pressure after each protocol was lower than before the protocols. Mean and diastolic arterial blood pressure were higher after protocol 3 and diastolic arterial blood pressure was higher after protocol 4 than after protocol 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Standardization of ventilatory protocols may minimize effects on thoracic CT images and hemodynamic variables. Although atelectasis was still present, ventilatory protocols 3 and 4 provided the best compromise between image quality and hemodynamic stability.
Objective—To optimize methods for the use of computed tomography (CT) to assess pathologic changes in the lungs of calves and to determine the effect of treatment on lung consolidation.
Animals—10 male Holstein calves.
Procedures—Calves were anesthetized to facilitate CT imaging of the thorax. After initial images were obtained, pneumonia was induced in the calves by inoculation through a bronchoscope. Two calves were used in a preliminary study to refine the inoculation dose and optimize CT images. Four calves were administered florfenicol and 4 calves were untreated control animals. Serial images were obtained 24, 48, and 72 hours after inoculation. After final images were obtained, calves were euthanized, and lung consolidation was estimated by use of lung surface area scoring and water displacement. These estimates were compared with estimated lung consolidation obtained by use of CT.
Results—Calves had rapid disease progression. Percentage of lung consolidation was not significantly different between treatment groups for any of the estimation methods. Results of an ANOVA of the 3 assessment methods indicated significant differences among methods. Estimates of the percentage of lung consolidation obtained by use of surface area scoring and CT correlated well, whereas water displacement estimates correlated poorly with other methods of consolidation estimation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the correlation with other methods for estimation of lung consolidation, CT has the potential to be used to monitor disease progression in calves with experimentally induced respiratory tract disease.
Objective—To evaluate tissue oxygen saturation (Sto2) by use of near-infrared spectroscopy in experimental acute hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in dogs.
Animals—14 healthy adult purpose-bred Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask, anesthesia was maintained with propofol and rocuronium bromide, and dogs were mechanically ventilated to maintain normocapnia. Dogs were studied under normovolemia (baseline), hypovolemia with target mean arterial blood pressure < 40 mm Hg achieved and maintained steady for 10 minutes (hypovolemia T1), then 20 minutes later (hypovolemia T2), following resuscitation with shed blood (after transfusion), and after administration of 20 mL of hetastarch/kg (hypervolemia). Conditions were executed sequentially during a single anesthetic episode, allowing stabilization between states (10 minutes). Hemoglobin concentration, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas concentrations, cardiac index, oxygen delivery indexed to body surface area, and Sto2 were monitored.
Results—From baseline to hypovolemia T1, there was a significant reduction in mean ± SD oxygen delivery index (619 ± 257 mL/min/m2 to 205 ± 76 mL/min/m2) and StO2 (94 ± 4.4% to 78 ± 12.2%). Following resuscitation, Sto2 (80 ± 8.5% vs 92 ± 6.45%) and oxygen delivery index (211 ± 73 mL/min/m2 vs 717 ± 221 mL/min/m2) significantly increased, returning to baseline values. Hypervolemia had no effect on Sto2 or oxygen delivery index. A strong correlation (r = 0.97) was detected between mean oxygen delivery index and Sto2 across all time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under the conditions of this study, there was a strong correlation between Sto2 and oxygen delivery, suggesting that Sto2 may be used to estimate oxygen delivery.