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Abstract

Objective—To estimate the probability of concurrently exceeding thresholds for plasma concentration of furosemide and urine specific gravity after IV administration of furosemide in horses.

Animals—12 mature healthy Thoroughbred (n = 6) or Quarter Horse (6) mares.

Procedure—Venous blood was collected from each horse prior to and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, and 6 hours after IV administration of 250 mg (first experiment) or 500 mg (second experiment) of furosemide. Urine was collected hourly between 1 and 6 hours after administration of furosemide at both doses. Concentrations of furosemide were determined by use of an ELISA. Concentration of furosemide and urine specific gravity was modeled as a function of time, accounting for inter- and intrahorse variabilities. On the basis of pharmacokinetic and specific gravity data, the probability of exceeding a concentration of 100 ng of furosemide/ml as a function of time was determined, using a semiparametric smooth functional averaging method. A bootstrap approach was used to assess the inherent variation in this estimated probability.

Results—The estimated probability of exceeding the threshold of 100 ng of furosemide/ml and urine specific gravity < 1.012 was approximately 0% between 4.0 and 5.5 hours after IV administration of 250 mg of furosemide/horse, and ranged from 0 to 1% between 4 and 5.5 hours after IV administration of 500 mg of furosemide/horse. The probability of a horse being falsely identified as in violation of regulatory concentrations was inversely associated with time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coupling plasma furosemide concentration with urine specific gravity testing will greatly reduce the chance that some horses are misclassified as being in violation of regulatory concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1349–1353)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the probability for exceeding a threshold concentration of furosemide commonly used for regulatory purposes after IV administration of furosemide in horses.

Animals—12 mature healthy horses (6 Thoroughbreds and 6 Quarter Horses).

Procedure—Venous blood was collected from each horse prior to and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, and 6 hours after administration of 250 or 500 mg of furosemide. Concentrations of furosemide were determined, using an ELISA. Concentration of furosemide was modeled as a function of time, accounting for inter- and intrahorse variabilities. On the basis of pharmacokinetic data, the probability for exceeding a concentration of 100 ng/ml as a function of time was determined, using a semiparametric smooth functional averaging method. A bootstrap approach was used to assess inherent variation in this estimated probability.

Results—The estimated probability of exceeding the threshold of 100 ng of furosemide/ml ranged from 11.6% at 4 hours to 2.2% at 5.5 hours after IV administration of 250 mg of furosemide/horse and 34.2% at 4 hours to 12.3% at 5.5 hours after IV administration of 500 mg of furosemide/horse. The probability of a horse being falsely identified in violation of regulatory concentrations was inversely associated with time and positively associated with dose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Interhorse variability with respect to pharmacokinetics of furosemide will result in misclassification of some horses as being in violation of regulatory concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:320–325)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether airborne concentrations of virulent Rhodococcus equi at 2 horse breeding farms varied on the basis of location, time of day, and month.

Sample Population—2 farms in central Kentucky with recurrent R equi-induced pneumonia in foals.

Procedures—From February through July 2008, air samples were collected hourly for a 24-hour period each month from stalls and paddocks used to house mares and their foals. Concentrations of airborne virulent R equi were determined via a modified colony immunoblot technique. Differences were compared by use of zero-inflated negative binomial methods to determine effects of location, time, and month.

Results—Whether mares and foals were housed predominantly in stalls or paddocks significantly affected results for location of sample collection (stall vs paddock) by increasing airborne concentrations of virulent R equi at the site where horses were predominantly housed. Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi were significantly higher from 6:00 pm through 11:59 pm than for the period from midnight through 5:59 am. Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi did not differ significantly between farms or among months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi were significantly increased when horses were predominantly housed at the site for collection of air samples (ie, higher in stalls when horses were predominantly housed in stalls and higher in paddocks when horses were predominantly housed in paddocks). Concentrations of virulent R equi among air samples collected between the hours of 6:00 am and midnight appeared similar.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research