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  • Author or Editor: Monica R. Aleman x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic features, and outcome of tracheal collapse in American Miniature Horses at a referral institution.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—13 American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse.

Procedures—Medical records of American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse at a referral hospital were reviewed. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, outcome, and histologic findings.

Results—Tracheal collapse was documented in 5.6% of American Miniature Horses admitted to this referral hospital. Median age at onset of clinical signs was 11 years with a range of 2 to 15 years. Common complaints and clinical signs included respiratory distress, tachypnea, inspiratory honking noises, and increased abdominal expiratory effort, which were exacerbated by stressful events, pregnancy, exercise, a dusty environment, and eating. Tracheal collapse was confirmed by use of radiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or postmortem examination. Dorsoventral flattening of the extra- or intrathoracic trachea, or both, was more common than lateral collapse. Tracheal chondromalacia was identified histologically in 4 cases, and mortality rate for affected horses was 10 of 13.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tracheal collapse was relatively common in this study of American Miniature Horses, and outcome was poor. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the nucleotide sequence of the equine intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) gene, its expression in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and the use of measuring I-FABP in horses with colic.

Animals—86 horses with colic.

Procedure—The mRNA sequence for the I-FABP gene was obtained by use of a rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends technique. Comparative I-FABP gene expression was quantitated by use of a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Amounts of I-FABP in abdominal fluid and plasma were measured by use of an ELISA kit. Association between I-FABP concentrations and clinical variables was performed by nonparametric analysis, and associations of these variables with intestinal ischemia were determined by the Spearman correlation test.

Results—The nucleotide sequence had 87% identity with human I-FABP. The I-FABP gene was highly expressed in the small intestinal mucosa but had low expression in the colon. High concentrations of I-FABP in abdominal fluid correlated with an increase in protein concentrations in peritoneal fluid and nonsurvival, whereas plasma I-FABP concentrations correlated with the necessity for abdominal surgery. Clinical variables associated with intestinal ischemia included the color and protein content of abdominal fluid and serum creatine kinase activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Determination of I-FABP concentrations in abdominal fluid and plasma may be useful for predicting survival and the need for abdominal surgical intervention in horses with colic. Furthermore, serum creatine kinase activity and color and protein concentrations of abdominal fluid may be useful in the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:223–232)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosae and determine the effect of oral administration of phenylbutazone on those gene expressions in horses.

Animals—12 healthy horses.

Procedures—Horses were allocated to receive phenylbutazone or placebo (6 horses/group); 1 placebo-treated horse with a cystic calculus was subsequently removed from the study, and those data were not analyzed. In each horse, the stomach and urinary bladder were evaluated for ulceration via endoscopy before and after experimental treatment. Oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosa biopsy specimens were collected by use of a skin punch biopsy instrument (oral) or transendoscopically (stomach and bladder) before and after administration of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) in corn syrup or placebo (corn syrup alone) for 7 days. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 gene expressions were determined (via quantitative PCR techniques) in specimens collected before and after the 7-day treatment period and compared within and between groups. Prior to commencement of treatment, biopsy specimens from 7 horses were used to compare gene expressions among tissues.

Results—The cyclooxygenase-1 gene was expressed in all tissues collected. The cyclooxygenase-2 gene was expressed in the glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa. Cyclooxygenase gene expressions were unaffected by phenylbutazone administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cyclooxygenase-2 was constitutively expressed in glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa of healthy horses. Oral administration of phenylbutazone at the maximum recommended dosage daily for 7 days did not affect cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 gene expression.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of a commercially available omeprazole paste and a compounded omeprazole suspension on healing of gastric ulcers in Thoroughbred racehorses in active training.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—32 horses with gastric ulcers.

Procedure—Horses were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of endoscopic gastric ulcer severity. Group-1 horses were treated with omeprazole suspension for 30 days and with omeprazole paste for an additional 30 days. Group-2 horses were treated with omeprazole paste for 30 days and omeprazole suspension for an additional 30 days. Serum omeprazole concentrations were measured in 4 additional healthy horses after administration of a single dose of each formulation. In all instances, omeprazole was administered at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb), PO.

Results—Ulcer severity scores on day 0 were not significantly different between groups. On day 30, ulcer severity score was significantly decreased, compared with day-0 score, in group-2 but not in group-1 horses. On day 60, ulcer severity score was significantly decreased, compared with day-0 and day-30 scores, in group-1 horses. In group-2 horses, ulcer severity score on day 60 was significantly lower than the day-0 score but was not significantly different from the day-30 score. Maximum observed serum omeprazole concentration and area under the concentration-time curve were significantly higher after administration of the paste versus the suspension formulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although administration of the commercially available paste omeprazole formulation was effective in promoting healing of gastric ulcers in these horses, administration of the compounded omeprazole suspension was ineffective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1139–1143)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association