To quantify the magnitude and duration of changes in urine chondroitin sulfate concentration (uCS) as a result of oral administration of a chondroitin sulfate–containing supplement in dogs.
8 healthy privately owned dogs.
A urine sample was collected from each dog via cystocentesis on day 1; free-catch midstream urine samples were collected once daily on days 2 through 5. Pretreatment uCS was established from those samples. Each dog then received a chondroitin sulfate–containing supplement (20 to 30 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days (on days 7 through 14). Urine samples were collected on days 8 through 12 and day 15. For each sample, uCS was quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Variable urine concentration was accounted for by dividing the uCS by urine creatinine concentration (uCrea) to determine the uCS:uCrea ratio. Pretreatment uCS:uCrea ratios were compared with treatment uCS:uCrea ratios to calculate the fold change in uCS after supplement administration.
Among the study dogs, oral administration of the chondroitin sulfate–containing supplement resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in the median uCS:uCrea ratio. Data obtained on days 8 through 12 and day 15 indicated that the daily increase in uCS remained consistent and was not additive.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that oral administration of supplemental chondroitin sulfate to dogs modestly increased uCS within 24 hours; however, subsequent supplement administration did not have an additive effect. A potential therapeutic benefit of persistently increased uCS in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs warrants investigation.
A 3-year-old 17.5-kg (38.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of nasal discharge, sneezing, and signs of nasal congestion of approximately 9 months’ duration. A diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) was made prior to referral.
Sneezing, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, reduced nasal airflow, stertor, and increased inspiratory effort were noted on physical examination. Results of serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges. Review of CT images of the skull revealed findings consistent with severe bilateral partial osseous choanal atresia and NPS. Retrograde rhinoscopy confirmed membranous NPS.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A ventral rhinotomy was performed; communication between the pharynx and nasal passageway was reestablished by surgical debridement of the caudal border of the palatine bone and vomerine crest and groove, followed by dissection of the membranous NPS and reconstruction of the caudal part of the nasopharynx. A covered nasopharyngeal stent was placed in the newly established nasopharynx. The dog recovered uneventfully but was presented 3 weeks later with recurrent signs; diagnostic findings were consistent with stenosis rostral to the stent. The stenosis was treated with balloon dilation, and a second covered stent was placed rostral to and overlapping the first stent, spanning the stenotic region. Eleven months after this procedure, the dog was doing well.
Results for this patient suggested that ventral rhinotomy and covered nasopharyngeal stent placement can be used successfully for the management of osseous choanal atresia in dogs; however, careful attention to preoperative planning and potential complications is necessary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:190–196)
To compare urine concentrations of fibrinogen (uFIB) and interleukin-6 (uIL-6) between dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria and healthy dogs.
Banked urine samples with negative aerobic culture results from 8 dogs with urolithiasis, 9 dogs with anatomic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract (LUT), 10 dogs with LUT neoplasia, and 21 healthy control dogs.
Urine creatinine concentration (uCrea) was determined by an automated biochemical analyzer, and uFIB and uIL-6 were determined by dog-specific ELISAs. The uFIB:uCrea and uIL-6:uCrea ratios were calculated for each sample to normalize intersample differences in urine concentration and were compared among the 4 experimental groups.
Median uFIB:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.72; interquartile [25th to 75 percentile] range [IQR], 0.46 to 3.48) and LUT neoplasia (6.16; IQR, 3.89 to 12.75), but not for dogs with LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.48; IQR, 0.27 to 0.69), were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.17; IQR, 0.07 to 0.39). Median uIL-6:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.48; IQR, 0.18 to 1.61), LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.25; IQR, 0.17 to 0.33), and LUT neoplasia (0.25; IQR, 0.12 to 1.01) were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.08; IQR, 0.06 to 0.11).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The uFIB and uIL-6 in dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria were generally greater than corresponding values in control dogs. Further investigation is necessary to determine the role of fibrinogen in enterococcal colonization of the urinary tract of dogs.
To describe the prevalence of postoperative bacteriuria, clinical course of subclinical bacteriuria in the absence of antimicrobial intervention, clinical signs of bacteriuria that trigger antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes for dogs with subclinical bacteriuria following surgical decompression of acute intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) Hansen type I.
Twenty client-owned dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for acute (≤ 6 days) IVDH Hansen type I affecting the thoracolumbar spinal cord segments between August 2018 and January 2019.
In this prospective study, dogs were serially evaluated at presentation, hospital discharge, 2 weeks postoperatively, and between 4 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs of bacteriuria, underwent laboratory monitoring (CBC, biochemical analyses, urinalysis, urine bacterial culture), and were scored for neurologic and urinary status. In the absence of clinical signs, bacteriuria was not treated with antimicrobials.
Four of the 18 dogs developed bacteriuria without clinical signs 4 days to 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. In all 4 dogs, bacteriuria resulted in lower urinary tract signs 13 to 26 weeks postoperatively. No dogs had evidence of systemic illness despite delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs developed. New-onset incontinence was the only clinical sign in 3 dogs. All bacterial isolates had wide antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriuria and clinical signs resolved with beta-lactam antimicrobial treatment.
Postoperative bacteriuria occurs in some dogs with IVDH Hansen type I and, when present, may lead to clinical signs over time. Clinical signs of bacteriuria may be limited to new-onset urinary incontinence, inappropriate urination, or both. Delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs of bacteriuria developed did not result in adverse consequences or systemic illness.