Objective—To determine whether tepoxalin alters kidney function in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Animals—16 dogs with CKD (International Renal Interest Society stage 2 or 3) and osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Kidney function was assessed via serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio, urine γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-creatinine concentration ratio, iohexol plasma clearance, and indirect blood pressure measurement twice before treatment. Dogs received tepoxalin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 28 days (acute phase; n = 16) and an additional 6 months (chronic phase; 10). Recheck examinations were performed weekly (acute phase) and at 1, 3, and 6 months (chronic phase). Kidney function variables were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA.
Results—There was no difference over time for any variables in dogs completing both phases of the study. Adverse drug events (ADEs) resulting in discontinuation of tepoxalin administration included increased serum creatinine concentration (1 dog; week 1), collapse (1 dog; week 1), increased liver enzyme activities (1 dog; week 4), vomiting and diarrhea (1 dog; week 8), hematochezia (1 dog; week 24), and gastrointestinal ulceration or perforation (1 dog; week 26). Preexisting medical conditions and concomitant drug use may have contributed to ADEs. Kidney function was not affected in the latter 5 dogs. Discontinuation of tepoxalin administration stabilized kidney function in the former dog and resolved the ADEs in 4 of the 5 latter dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin may be used, with appropriate monitoring, in dogs with International Renal Interest Society stage 2 or 3 CKD and osteoarthritis.
To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves.
Cohorts (n = 3,339) of male beef calves (545,866) purchased by 1 large cattle feeding operation from 216 locations and transported to 1 of 89 feeding locations (backgrounding location or feedlot) with similar management protocols.
Associations between weather conditions and management factors on the day of purchase (day P) and during the first week at the feeding location and cumulative BRDC mortality incidence within the first 60 days on feed were estimated in a mixed-effects negative binomial regression model.
Significant factors in the final model were weaning status; degree of com-mingling; body weight; transport distance; season; precipitation, mean wind speed, and maximum environmental temperature on day P; environmental temperature range in the first week after arrival at the feeding location; and interactions between distance and wind speed and between body weight and maximum environmental temperature. Precipitation and wind speed on day P were associated with lower cumulative BRDC mortality incidence, but wind speed was associated only among calves transported long distances (≥ 1,082.4 km). Higher mean maximum temperature on day P increased the incidence of cumulative mortality among calves with low body weights (< 275.5 kg).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Several weather conditions on day P and during the first week after arrival were associated with incidence of BRDC mortality. The results may have implications for health- and economic-risk management, especially for high-risk calves and calves that are transported long distances.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether animal-to-animal and community contact patterns were correlated with and predictive for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef steers during the first 28 days after feedlot entry.
PROCEDURES Calves were instrumented with a real-time location system transmitter tag and commingled in a single pen. The location of each calf was continuously monitored. Contact between calves was defined as ≤ 0.5 m between pen coordinates, and the duration that 2 calves were within 0.5 m of each other was calculated daily. Bovine respiratory disease was defined as respiratory tract signs and a rectal temperature > 40°C. Locational data were input into a community detection program to determine daily calf contact and community profiles. The number of BRD cases within each community was determined. A random forest algorithm was then applied to the data to determine whether contact measures were predictive of BRD.
RESULTS Probability of BRD was positively correlated with the number of seconds a calf spent in contact with calves presumably shedding BRD pathogens and number of calves with BRD within the community on the day being evaluated and the previous 2 days. Diagnostic performance of the random forest algorithm varied, with the positive and negative predictive values generally < 10% and > 90%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that direct transmission of BRD pathogens likely occurs among feedlot cattle. The relative contribution of animal-to-animal contact to BRD risk remains unknown and warrants further investigation.