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Energy expenditure (ee) was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system in a group of 20 clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs. Five evaluations were performed over an 8-hour period to determine reliability of the method. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated as the ratio of within- and between-subject variances, using repeated-measures anova. When only the middle 3 evaluations were included, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87, indicating good reliability. The first evaluation was higher than the subsequent 4 evaluations for rate of O2 consumption (Vo2/kg and Vo2/kg0.75; (P ≤ 0.01), and ee/kg and ee/kg0.75 (P ≤ 0.005). The respiratory quotients at the first (P = 0.004) and second (P = 0.013) evaluations were different from the respiratory quotient at the fourth evaluation. Therefore, the first evaluation may not be representative of the actual ee. The mean value of at least 3 subsequent evaluations after an adequate adaptation period (5 to 10 minutes) to the equipment will be useful for predicting energy requirements of apparently resting, clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine how long serum concentrations of ω-3 fatty acids remain elevated after cessation of dietary fish oil supplementation.


12 healthy Beagles.


Baseline serum concentrations of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured. Dogs were then fed a diet supplemented with soybean oil or fish oil for 8 weeks, and serum fatty acid concentrations were measured while dogs were fed the experimental diets and for 18 weeks after they were switched to a maintenance diet.


For dogs fed the fish oil diet, serum EPA and DHA concentrations were significantly increased by week 1 and remained increased for 7 (DHA concentration) or 3 (EPA concentration) weeks after dietary fish oil supplementation was discontinued.


In dogs, supplementation of the diet with fish oil may have effects for several weeks after dietary supplementation is discontinued.

Clinical Relevance

Studies of the effects of fish oil supplementation that use a crossover design should allow for an appropriate washout period. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:864–868)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on return to racing, performance index, and career longevity in racing Quarter Horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to evaluate performance variables for horses with RLN undergoing prosthetic laryngoplasty, compared with a control horse population.

DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 162 racing Quarter Horses with RLN treated with prosthetic laryngoplasty (case horses) and 324 racing Quarter Horse without RLN (control horses).

PROCEDURES Medical and race records of case and control horses examined at 5 referral centers between January 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Two control horses were matched with each case horse. Return to racing, earnings, number of racing starts, performance index, and career longevity were evaluated.

RESULTS The odds of returning to racing did not differ significantly between case and control horses but decreased with increasing age. Neither racing starts nor career longevity were affected by prosthetic laryngoplasty or by RLN grade. In fact, horses undergoing laryngoplasty for treatment of RLN and horses with the lowest RLN grade before surgery had higher performance indices after the surgery, compared with indices for control horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The faster speeds and shorter distances raced with Quarter Horses could alter how RLN impacts respiratory variables and performance in Quarter Horses, compared with other racehorse breeds. Further study is needed to understand the impacts of RLN and surgical treatments for RLN in racing Quarter Horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association