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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether monthly topical administration of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin would lessen flea (Ctenocephalides felis) transmission of Bartonella henselae among cats.

Design—Controlled trial.

Animals—18 specific pathogen–free cats housed in 3 groups of 6.

Procedures—3 enclosures were separated by mesh to allow fleas to pass among groups yet prevent cats from contacting one another. One group was inoculated IV with B henselae, and after infection was confirmed, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. This infected group was flanked by a group that was treated topically with 10% imidacloprid–1% moxidectin monthly for 3 months and by an untreated group. On days 0, 15, 28, and 42, 100 fleas/cat were placed on each of the 6 cats in the B henselae–infected group. Blood samples were collected from all cats weekly for detection of Bartonella spp via PCR assay, bacterial culture, and serologic assay.

ResultsB henselae infection was confirmed in the cats infected IV and in all untreated cats after flea exposure; none of the cats treated with the imidacloprid-moxidectin combination became infected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this setting, monthly topical administration of 10% imidacloprid–1% moxidectin reduced flea infestation, compared with infestation in untreated cats, and thus prevented flea transmission of B henselae to treated cats. Regular monthly use of this flea control product in cats may lessen the likelihood of humans acquiring B henselae infection.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine regional seroprevalence estimates of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgG in clinically ill cats throughout the United States.

Sample Population—Sera from 12,628 clinically ill, client-owned cats.

ProcedureToxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by use of ELISAs. Sera from clinically ill cats previously submitted for T gondii antibody testing were sequentially selected from our serum bank and the sample submission paperwork reviewed. The country was divided into 12 geographic regions. Overall prevalence as well as prevalence for each region, age group, season, sex (male vs female), and breed (domestic shorthair vs other) was calculated. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.

Results—Overall, 31.6% of the cats were seropositive for T gondii-specific IgM, IgG, or both. Percentage of cats seropositive for T gondii antibodies ranged from 16.1% (southwestern United States) to 43.5% (northeastern United States). As age increased, odds of positive T gondii antibody assay results (IgM alone, IgG alone, and any combination of IgM or IgG) increased. Males were more likely than females to be seropositive for T gondii antibodies (IgG alone and any combination of IgM or IgG). Domestic shorthair cats were more likely than other breeds to be seropositive for T gondii antibodies (IgM alone, IgG alone, and any combination of IgM or IgG).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceToxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies are common in serum samples of clinically ill cats from all regions of the United States. Seroprevalence increases as cats age and is higher in male and domestic shorthair cats, compared with females and other breeds. (Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:874–877)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (Mhm) can be transmitted by ingestion of Mycoplasma-infected Ctenocephalides felis and by-products (feces, larvae, and eggs).

Animals—10 cats.

Procedure—3 cats were carriers of Mhf, and 1 was a carrier of Mhm. Six cats had negative results of PCR assay for Mhf and Mhm DNA. A chamber containing 100 C felis was bandaged to 2 Mhf carrier cats. Five days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a sample of by-products were fed to 2 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. A chamber containing 200 C felis was bandaged to the Mhm carrier cat. Five days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a sample of by-products were fed to 2 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. A chamber containing 200 C felis was bandaged to an Mhf carrier cat and Mhm-carrier cat. Three days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a random sample of by products were fed to 4 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. All cats were monitored for infection for ≥7 weeks.

Results—Uptake of Mhf and Mhm DNA into fleas and by-products was detected. None of the naïve cats became infected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ingestion of Mycoplasma-infected C felis or by-products is not an important means of transmission for Mhf or Mhm.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether fenbendazole effectively eliminates Giardia organisms from chronically infected cats that have a concurrent Cryptosporidium parvum infection.

Animals—16 clinically normal cats.

Procedure—Eight cats with chronic concurrent Giardia and C parvum infections received fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days (treatmentgroup cats). Feces from each cat were collected and processed 3 days weekly for 23 days after treatment. By use of an immunofluorescent assay for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts and C parvum oocysts, organism numbers were counted and scored. Fecal results from treatment-group cats were compared with those of 8 untreated cats with Giardia infection but no C parvum infection (control-group cats).

Results—Four of 8 treatment-group cats had consistently negative results for Giardia infection after treatment. These 4 cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts prior to treatment and consistently negative results after treatment. One treatment -group cat had positive results for cysts on all fecal samples, and 3 treatment-group cats had 1 to 3 negative results and then resumed shedding large numbers of cysts; each of these cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts. When compared with control-group cats, treatment-group cats shed less Giardia cysts during week 1 after treatment but not during week 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of fenbendazole decreases Giardia cyst shedding to less than detectable numbers in some cats. In our study, persistent C parvum infection may have been associated with failure of fenbendazole to eliminate Giardia infection. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1027–1029)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and serologic changes in cryptococcal antigen and antibody titers in cats with confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

Design

Prospective case series.

Animals

47 cats with cryptococcosis.

Procedure

Cats included in this study were determined to have cryptococcosis on the basis of identification of C neoformans on histologic or cytologic examination, isolation of C neoformans in culture, or positive serologic test results for cryptococcal antigens. Information concerning the signalment, history, physical examination findings, FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus status, serologic testing, treatment, and outcome for each cat was requested on a survey form. Follow-up measurements of serum cryptococcal antigen and antibody titers were requested for all surviving cats.

Results

Signalment and clinical signs of cats with cryptococcosis reported here were consistent with previous reports. Treatment consisted primarily of azole antifungal drugs. All cats were seronegative for cryptococcal antibodly titers, whether tested initially or at follow-up examination. All but 1 cat tested were seropositive for cryptococeal antigens when initially tested. Cats with and without clinical signs of C neoformans infection were seropositive for cryptococcal antigens months to years after initial diagnosis of cryptococcosis.

Clinical Implications

The results of this study indicate that serum titers to cryptococcal antigens in cats can persist with or without clinical signs for months to years after an initial diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made. Repeated evaluation of serum cryptococcal antigen titers is advised during the treatment of cats to monitor progress, evaluate prognosis, and guide cessation of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1110-1113)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether uveitis in cats was associated with intraocular production of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1)-specific antibodies or with detection of FHV-1 DNA in aqueous humor (AH).

Animals

44 cats with idiopathic uveitis, 29 cats with uveitis attributed to Toxoplasma gondii infection, 13 FHV-1 seropositive cats without uveitis, and 9 FHV-1 seronegative cats without uveitis.

Procedure

ELISA were used to detect FHV-1-specific antibodies and total IgG antibodies in serum and AH, and the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (C-value) for intraocular antibody production was calculated. A polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect FHV-1 dna in AH.

Results

FHV-1 seroprevalence among cats with uveitis was not significantly different from seroprevalence among cats without uveitis. Intraocular FHV-1 antibodies were never detected in cats without uveitis. Significantly more cats with idiopathic uveitis (22/44) or with toxoplasmic uveitis (11/29) had evidence of intraocular antibody production (C-value > 1) than did cats without uveitis. Only cats with idiopathic uveitis had FHV-1 C-values > 8. Among cats with evidence of intraocular antibody production, cats with idiopathic uveitis had a significantly higher median FHV-1 C-value (9.61) than did cats with toxoplasmic uveitis (2.56). Overall, FHV-1 DNA was detected in AH from 12 cats, 11 of which had uveitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that FHV-1 can infect intraocular tissues of cats and that intraocular FHV-1 infection may be associated with uveal inflammation in some cats. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:932–936)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that detects and differentiates the Ohio strain of Haemobartonella felis (H felis-OH) and the California strain of H felis (H felis-CA) and to apply the assay to blood samples from cats with and without suspected haemobartonellosis (suspect and control cats, respectively).

Sample Population—220 blood samples were examined; 82 were from suspect cats, and 138 were from control cats.

Procedure—A PCR assay was designed to detect and differentiate H felis-OH and H felis-CA.

Results—On the basis of PCR assay results, the overall prevalence of H felis infection was 19.5% (43/220). Suspect cats (28.0%; 23/82) were significantly more likely than control cats (14.5%; 20/138) to be H felis infected. Significantly greater numbers of suspect cats were H felis-OH infected (12.2%, 9/82) or H felis-OH and H felis-CA infected (4.9%, 4/82) than control cats (0% [0/138] and 0.7% [1/138], respectively). Significantly more anemic cats were H felis-OH infected (14.3%; 4/28) or H felis-OH and H felis-CA infected (7.1%; 2/28) than nonanemic cats (2.3% [3/128] and 0.8% [1/128], respectively). The PCR assay was more accurate than cytologic examination for detection of H felis.

Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceHaemobartonella felis infections are more common in cats than previously recognized. Haemobartonella felis-OH is apparently more pathogenic than H felis-CA. The PCR assay is more accurate than cytologic examination for detection of H felis infection and is an effective clinical tool for the detection and differentiation of both H felis strains known to infect cats. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:604–608)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin in the treatment of cats experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hemofelis.

Animals—23 young adult specific-pathogen–free cats.

Procedures—Cats were inoculated with M hemofelis from a chronically infected donor and assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: a doxycycline group, a low-dose–pradofloxacin group, a high-dose–pradofloxacin group, and an untreated control group. Treatment was initiated for 14 days when M hemofelis infection was detected via PCR assay and clinical signs of hemoplasmosis were present. Cats that had negative PCR assay results after treatment were administered a glucocorticoid and monitored via PCR assay for an additional 4 weeks.

Results—All cats yielded positive results for M hemofelis via conventional PCR and quantitative PCR assays and developed anemia. The low-dose–pradofloxacin group had significantly lower M hemofelis copy numbers than the doxycycline group. Six cats treated with pradofloxacin yielded negative results during treatment. Of those cats, 4 yielded negative conventional PCR assay results and all yielded negative quantitative PCR assay results for M hemofelis 1 month after administration of high-dose glucocorticoids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pradofloxacin had anti–M hemofelis effects similar to those of doxycycline. In addition, pradofloxacin may be more effective at long-term M hemofelis organism clearance than doxycycline.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research