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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of orally administered glucosamine hydrochloride (GIAm)–chondroitin sulfate (sCS) and GIAM–CS–S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) on chemically induced synovitis in the radiocarpal joint of dogs.

Animals

32 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

For 21 days, all dogs received a sham capsule (3 groups) or GIAm-CS (prior treatment group) in a double-blinded study. Unilateral carpal synovitis was induced by injecting the right radiocarpal joint with chymopapain and the left radiocarpal joint (control joint) with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Joints were injected on alternate days for 3 injections. After induction of synovitis, 2 groups receiving sham treatment were given GIAm-CS or GIAm-CS–SAMe. Another group continued to receive sham capsules (control group). Joint inflammation was quantified, using nuclear scintigraphy, before injection of joints and days 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after injection. Lameness evaluations were performed daily.

Results

Dogs given GIAm-CS before induction of synovitis had significantly less scintigraphic activity in the soft-tissue phase 48 days after joint injection, significantly less uptake in the bone phase 41 and 48 days after joint injection, and significantly lower lameness scores on days 12 to 19, 23, and 24 after injection, compared with other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Analysis of results of this study suggest that prior treatment with GIAm-CS for 21 days had a protective effect against chemically induced synovitis and associated bone remodeling. Prior treatment with GIAm-CS also reduced lameness in dogs with induced synovitis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1552–1557)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement on gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Animals

8 healthy adult 3- to 5-year-old cats.

Procedure

Cats were accommodated to the diet for 2 weeks prior to scintigraphy. Caloric needs were divided into 3 feedings/d. Food was withheld for 24 hours after tube placement, then was fed as a third of the caloric needs on day 1, two-thirds on day 2, and full caloric requirements thereafter. Gastric emptying was measured via nuclear scintigraphy. Labeled meals contained 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 99mTc-labeled disofenin. Sixty-second ventral scintigraphic images were acquired immediately, every 20 minutes for the first hour, then every 30 minutes for 4 hours after feeding. Each cat was evaluated 3 times prior to PEG tube placement. Cats were anesthetized, and 16-F mushroom-tipped Pezzar gastrostomy tubes were placed, using a video endoscope. Scintigraphy was repeated on days 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, and 21 after PEG tube placement.

Results

Gastric emptying was faster with a PEG tube in place. Percentage of retained gastric activity was significantly lower after PEG for 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes versus time before PEG tube placement.

Conclusion

Placement of a PEG tube does not delay gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Clinical Relevance

Gastric retention of food, vomiting, and aspiration pneumonia after PEG tube placement may not be related to delayed gastric emptying. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1414–1416)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the effect of stanozolol on body composition, nitrogen balance, and food consumption in castrated dogs with chronic renal failure.

Design

Blinded crossover trial.

Animals

22 casated Beagles with experimentally induced chronic renal failure.

Procedure

Dogs were divided into 2 groups of 11 dogs each. During each of two 6-week treatment periods, dogs in 1 group received stanozolol, and those in the other group received a control agent. Nitrogen balance, body composition, and food consumption were determined.

Results

During administration of stanozolol, the amount of food consumed per dog, lean body mass, and nitrogen balance increased. Stanozolol did not have a significant effect on body fat, bone mineral content, or food consumption per kilogram of body weight.

Clinical Implications

For dogs with mild-to-moderate, nonuremic, experimentally induced, chronic renal failure, stanozolol had positive effects on nitrogen balance and lean body mass. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:719–722)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To characterize factors that affect solid-phase gastric emptying in healthy cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy and to assess differences in emptying patterns of dry and canned diets.

Animals

20 healthy cats.

Procedure

2 groups of 10 cats each were fed dry or canned diet for at least 2 weeks before scintigraphy was done. Diets were labeled with 99mTc-disofenin. After ingestion of labeled meals, scintigraphic images were obtained at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, then every 30 minutes to 6 hours. Gastric emptying scans were obtained 3 times for each cat for each diet, in a complete crossover design. The T90, T50, and T20 (times when 90, 50, and 20% of initial meal activity remained in the stomach, respectively) were derived from gastric emptying curves fit to nonlinear models. A mixed models approach was used for data analysis.

Results

Gastric emptying was well described by a nonlinear model. Meal size, water intake, and diet type significantly (P < 0.05) effected gastric emptying. The T90, T50, and T20 increased with meal size, regardless of diet type or water intake. Gastric emptying of a dry diet meal took significantly (P < 0.05) longer than that of an isocaloric meal of canned diet, except when meal size was small. Differences in gastric emptying of dry and canned diets varied with the phase (T90 vs T50 vs T20) of emptying.

Conclusion

Water intake, meal size, and diet type significantly influence gastric emptying in healthy cats, and these factors must be considered in analysis of gastric emptying data. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:388–392)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research