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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare stability of hemostatic proteins in canine fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) thawed with a modified commercial microwave warmer (MCM) or warm water bath (37°C; WWB) or at room temperature (22°C).

SAMPLE Fresh-frozen plasma obtained from 8 canine donors of a commercial blood bank.

PROCEDURES A commercial microwave warmer was modified with a thermocouple to measure surface temperature of bags containing plasma. The MCM and a WWB were each used to concurrently thaw a 60-mL bag of plasma obtained from the same donor. Two 3-mL control aliquots of FFP from each donor were thawed to room temperature without use of a heating device. Concentrations of hemostatic proteins, albumin, and D-dimers; prothrombin time (PT); and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were determined for all samples.

RESULTS Significant decreases in concentrations of factors II, IX, X, XI, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, antithrombin, protein C, and albumin and significant increases in PT and aPTT were detected for plasma thawed with the MCM, compared with results for samples thawed with the WWB. Concentrations of factors VII, VIII, and XII were not significantly different between plasma thawed with the MCM and WWB. Concentrations of D-dimers were above the reference range for all thawed samples regardless of thawing method. No significant differences in factor concentrations were detected between control and WWB-thawed samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Significant differences in hemostatic protein concentrations and coagulation times were detected for plasma thawed with an MCM but not between control and WWB-thawed samples. Clinical importance of these changes should be investigated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) of canine urine.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

SAMPLE 60 mL of pooled urine from 4 dogs, divided into six 10-mL aliquots.

PROCEDURES Urine aliquots were spiked with bacteria from 1 of 6 independent Escherichia coli cultures to achieve a target bacterial concentration of 105 CFUs/mL. One milliliter from each aliquot was transferred into 5 silicone-coated clot tubes (SCTs) and 5 urine transport tubes (UTTs). Samples were stored at 4°C (39°F) and 25°C (77°F) for 0, 8, and 24 hours, and then standard QBCs were performed.

RESULTS Median bacterial concentration for urine samples stored in a UTT for 24 hours at 4°C was lower than that for samples stored in an SCT under the same conditions. Conversely, a substantial decrease in median bacterial concentration was identified for samples stored for 24 hours in an SCT at 25°C, compared with the median concentration for samples stored in a UTT under the same conditions. Median bacterial concentration in samples stored in an SCT at 25°C for 24 hours (275 CFUs/mL) was less than the cutoff typically used to define clinically important bacteriuria by use of urine samples obtained via cystocentesis (ie, > 1,000 CFUs/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine urine samples submitted for immediate QBC should be transported in plain sterile tubes such as SCTs. When prolonged (24-hour) storage at room temperature is anticipated, urine samples should be transported in UTTs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene for variants and to determine their possible association with pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers.

Animals—39 Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis, 25 healthy Miniature Schnauzers, and 23 healthy dogs of other breeds.

Procedures—The entire canine SPINK1 gene with its intron-exon boundaries was initially sequenced in 22 Miniature Schnauzers. Then, 2 regions of the gene were sequenced in 65 additional canine DNA samples at the locations of variants identified in the initial sequencing of the entire SPINK1 gene.

Results—Analysis of the SPINK1 gene in Miniature Schnauzers revealed 3 closely associated variants in healthy Miniature Schnauzers and Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis. These variants consisted of 2 missense mutations in the second exon (N20K and N25T) and a poly T insertion in the third intron that was near the boundary of exon 3 (IVS3+26–27ins(T)33–39,15_61dup11). Pancreatitis was significantly associated with homozygous alleles for these 3 variants in Miniature Schnauzers. In healthy dogs of other breeds, only the 2 exon variants were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Variants of the SPINK1 gene may be associated with the development of pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value.

RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate use of crotalid antivenom, frequency of hypersensitivity reactions, and risk factors for hypersensitivity reactions and death in envenomed cats.

Design—Retrospective multicenter case series.

Animals—115 envenomed cats treated with antivenom and 177 envenomed cats treated without antivenom.

Procedures—Medical records from 5 institutions were searched by means of a multiple-choice survey with standardized answers for patient data including signalment, diagnosis, antivenom administration criteria, premedication, product, dose, administration rate, hypersensitivity reactions, and mortality rate.

Results—95 of 115 (82.6%) cats received whole IgG antivenom, 11 (9.57%) received F(ab′)2 antivenom, and 4 (3.48%) received Fab antivenom. The majority (101/115 [878%]) of cats received 1 vial of antivenom. In all cats, the median dilution of antivenom was 1:60 (range, 1:10 to 1:250) administered over a median period of 2.0 hours (range, 0.3 to 9.0 hours). There was no mortality rate difference between cats that did (6.67%) or did not (5.08%) receive antivenom. A type I hypersensitivity reaction was diagnosed in 26 of 115 (22.6%) cats. The use of premedications did not decrease type I hypersensitivity or improve mortality rate. Cats that had a type I hypersensitivity reaction were 10 times as likely to die as were those that did not have such a reaction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The mortality rate of cats treated with antivenom was low. The administration of premedications did not improve mortality rate or prevent hypersensitivity reactions. The only variable associated with mortality rate was development of a type I hypersensitivity reaction. The rate of antivenom administration should be further evaluated as a possible risk factor for type I hypersensitivity reactions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association