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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To utilize the geometry of superficial anatomic landmarks to guide incisional location and orientation for peripheral lymphadenectomy, document deep anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and develop novel surgical approaches to the superficial cervical, axillary, and superficial inguinal lymphocentrums in dogs.

ANIMALS

12 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

2 cadavers were used for a pilot investigation to determine optimal body positioning, select superficial anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and evaluate novel surgical approaches to the 3 lymphocentrums. These lymphocentrums were then dissected in 10 additional cadavers using these novel surgical approaches. Measurements of the distances from lymphocentrum to landmark and between landmarks were obtained for each lymphocentrum. Deep anatomic landmarks were recorded for each dissection. The mean and SD were calculated for each measurement and used to develop geometric guidelines for estimating the location of each lymphocentrum for these surgical approaches.

RESULTS

Each peripheral lymphocentrum was found in the same location relative to the respective, predetermined, superficial, anatomic boundaries in all cadavers. Briefly, the superficial landmarks to each lymphocentrum were as follows: (1) superficial cervical: wing of atlas, acromion process of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus; (2) axillary: caudal border of transverse head of superficial pectoral muscle, caudal triceps muscle, ventral midline; and (3) superficial inguinal: origin of pectineus muscle, ipsilateral inguinal mammary gland, ventral midline. The proposed superficial and deep surgical landmarks were identified within every cadaver. The previously undescribed surgical approaches were effective for lymphocentrum identification.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Anatomic landmarks provided in this study may help reduce surgical time and tissue trauma during peripheral lymphadenectomy in dogs. This study was also the first to describe a surgical approach to the superficial inguinal lymphocentrum and ventral approaches to the superficial cervical and axillary lymphocentrums and provided previously unpublished anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach to the superficial cervical lymphocentrum.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time

ANIMALS

100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.

RESULTS

100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association