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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe a retroesophagoscopic approach (ROSA) to nasopharyngoscopy and compare it with the conventional retroflexed endoscopic approach (REA).

ANIMALS

36 feline cadavers and 2 client-owned cats with nasopharyngeal disorders.

PROCEDURES

36 veterinarians participated in the experimental portion of the study involving feline cadavers. Each veterinarian performed the ROSA and REA to nasopharyngoscopy on a feline cadaver once, attempting to identify and biopsy 2 landmarks (soft palate and choanae) with each approach while time was recorded. Numeric scales were used to measure perceived ease of use and image quality for both techniques. Data were compared between approaches by an independent statistician. The ROSA approach was also used as part of the diagnostic workup for the 2 client-owned cats.

RESULTS

35 of the 36 (97%) veterinarians were able to identify and biopsy both landmarks using the ROSA, whereas 21 (58%) veterinarians were able to visualize both landmarks using the REA and 19 (53%) successfully biopsied the landmarks. Image quality for the soft palate was scored higher with the ROSA (median score, 7.5/10) than with the REA (4.5/10). The ROSA was fast and easy to perform. This approach was also successfully performed in the 2 client-owned cats with nasopharyngeal disorders, with no complications reported.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The ROSA was found to be a fast, effective, and easy alternative endoscopic technique for assessment of the nasopharynx in cats. This approach may allow use of various instruments that could be relevant for interventional procedures. However, the ROSA was also invasive and should be considered for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes for selected indications only when REA is unsuccessful. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:752–759)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of iohexol on standardized quantitative urine culture results in dogs. The authors hypothesized that the presence of iohexol in inoculated urine samples would result in lower bacterial concentrations (CFU/mL) and, therefore, decrease culture sensitivity.

SAMPLE

Urine samples were aseptically collected during cystoscopy from a single client-owned dog untreated with antimicrobials.

PROCEDURES

An experimental controlled study. The urine sample was divided into 38 aliquots (0.5 mL each) that were used as negative controls or inoculated with an equal amount of Escherichia coli (105 CFU/mL). Different volumes (0.1 and 0.5 mL) of contrast or saline were added to the aliquots and quantitative culture results were compared. Two different incubation times between the preparation of aliquots and culture were evaluated (15 minutes and 24 hours).

RESULTS

All aliquots from samples inoculated with E. coli (positive controls and iohexol-group) had the same reported quantitative result (104 CFU/mL). No growth was reported for the negative controls. Iohexol did not show any anti-E. coli properties in canine urine cultures for dilutions up to 1:2 contrast:urine and concentrations up to 120 mgI/mL. No difference was reported when iohexol was incubated with inoculated urine for 15 minutes or 24 hours.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Based on the experimental in vitro conditions described, administration of iohexol before the collection of urine during urologic procedures does not negatively impact the isolation and growth of E. coli.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research