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Objective—To determine prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms in dogs with diabetes mellitus following cataract extraction by means of phacoemulsification and identify potential risk factors.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 174 dogs without.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed, and information was recorded on signalment, history, physical examination findings, ophthalmic examination findings, results of laboratory testing, electroretinographic findings, and surgical findings. Glycemic control was classified as poor, intermediate, or good on the basis of baseline blood glucose concentration, perioperative body weight loss, daily insulin dosage, and presence of glucosuria and ketonuria. Data from diabetic and nondiabetic dogs were analyzed to determine prevalence and risk factors for development of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms following phacoemulsification.

Results—11 of the 52 (21%) dogs with diabetes mellitus developed ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms, compared with 1 of the 174 (0.6%) nondiabetic dogs. Median time from onset of diabetes mellitus to diagnosis of retinopathy was 1.4 years (range, 0.5 to 3.2 years). No risk factors for development of retinopathy were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms may be more common and develop earlier in diabetic dogs than previously reported. This may affect treatment, as diabetic dogs survive longer with improved glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 709–716)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the duration of effect and the effect of multiple doses of topical ophthalmic application of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride on corneal sensitivity in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—8 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment order in a 2 × 2 (period × treatment) crossover study. Treatments consisted of topical application of ophthalmic 0.5% proparacaine (1 drop or 2 drops at a 1-minute interval); treatments were applied to both eyes. A Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer was used to determine corneal touch threshold (CTT) before corneal application, 1 and 5 minutes after corneal application, and at 5-minute intervals thereafter for 90 minutes.

Results—The CTT value before treatment differed significantly from CTT values after treatment until 45 minutes after application in the 1-drop group and until 55 minutes after application in the 2-drop group. As determined by use of the Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer, a significantly greater anesthetic effect was detected for the 2-drop treatment, compared with the effect for the 1-drop treatment, at 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 minutes after application. Maximal anesthetic effect lasted for 15 minutes for the 1-drop treatment and 25 minutes for the 2-drop treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of corneal anesthetic effect induced by topical ophthalmic application of 0.5% proparacaine in dogs of this study is considerably longer than that reported elsewhere. Serial application of doses of 0.5% proparacaine increases the duration and magnitude of corneal anesthetic effects. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:77–80)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe clinical, microbiological, in vivo confocal microscopic, and histopathologic features of fungal keratitis in alpacas and to estimate prevalence of the disease in a population of alpacas from the northeastern United States.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 alpacas.

Procedures—Medical records of alpacas evaluated by the ophthalmology service of a veterinary teaching hospital were searched to identify animals with a clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis and positive results for fungal culture of a corneal sample between 2003 and 2012. Signalment and historical, clinical, and microbiological details were recorded. Results of cytologic, histopathologic, and in vivo confocal microscopic corneal examinations were collected when available.

Results—Fungal keratitis was diagnosed in 11 of 169 (6.5%) alpacas that underwent ophthalmologic examination by the ophthalmology service during the study period. Ten of the 11 alpacas were evaluated in the summer or fall months. Corneal lesions included stromal ulcer, stromal abscess, corneal perforation, and nonulcerative keratitis. Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani were the most frequently cultured fungi. Fungi were also identified through corneal cytologic examination, histologic examination, or in vivo confocal microscopy in 9 alpacas. Historically, 2 alpacas were evaluated following external ocular trauma and 1 following corneal foreign body removal. Nine alpacas had received topical treatment with antimicrobials and 2 had antimicrobial-corticosteroid combinations administered topically prior to referral. Nine of 10 alpacas for which follow-up information was available were successfully treated, with globe and vision retention.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fungal keratitis was a relatively common ocular disease in this population of alpacas and appeared to share several clinical features with keratomycosis in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association