Objective—To compare echocardiographic variables of dogs with postmortem anatomic measurements and histologic characteristics of the mitral valve (MV).
Animals—21 cardiologically normal dogs.
Procedures—The MV was measured echocardiographically by use of the right parasternal 5-chamber long-axis view. Dogs were euthanized, and anatomic measurements of the MV annulus (MVa) were performed at the level of the left circumflex coronary artery. Mitral valve leaflets (MVLs) and chordae tendineae were measured. Structure of the MVLs was histologically evaluated in 3 segments (proximal, middle, and distal).
Results—Echocardiographic measurements of MVL length did not differ significantly from anatomic measurements. A positive correlation was detected between body weight and MVa area. There was a negative correlation between MVa area and the percentage by which the MVL area exceeded the MVa area. Anterior MVLs had a significantly higher number of chordae tendineae than did posterior MVLs. Histologically, layering of MVLs was less preserved in the distal segment, whereas the muscular component and adipose tissue were significantly more diffuse in the proximal and middle segments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The MV in cardiologically normal dogs had wide anatomic variability. Anatomic measurements of MVL length were correlated with echocardiographic measurements.
To determine the prevalence of nucleic acid from selected cardiotropic pathogens in endomyocardial biopsy samples from dogs with unexplained myocardial and rhythm disorders (UMRD) and compare prevalence with that for a group of control dogs with congenital heart disease (CHD).
47 client-owned dogs.
Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed in dogs with UMRD (dilated cardiomyopathy [n = 25], atrioventricular block , and nonfamilial ventricular  and supraventricular arrhythmias ) or CHD (10) that required right ventricular catheterization. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically, and PCR assays were used for detection of nucleic acid from 12 pathogens.
197 biopsy samples were collected from dogs with UMRD (n = 172) or CHD (25). At least 1 pathogen was detected in 21 of 37 (57%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 41% to 71%) dogs with UMRD, and canine coronavirus was detected in 1 of 10 (10%; 95% CI, 2% to 40%) dogs with CHD. Dogs with UMRD were significantly more likely than dogs with CHD to have pathogens detected in biopsy samples (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 103.0). The most common pathogens in dogs with UMRD were canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus 2, and Bartonella spp. No pathogens were detected in available blood samples from dogs with pathogens detected in biopsy samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Detection of nucleic acids from selected cardiotropic pathogens in myocardial tissue from dogs with UMRD suggested a possible association between the 2. Further studies are needed to explore whether this association is causative or clinically important. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:1150–1160)
Objective—To compare the Kiupel (2 categories) and Patnaik (3 categories) histologic grading systems for predicting the presence of metastasis at the time of initial examination in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—386 client-owned dogs with cutaneous MCTs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cutaneous MCTs that had undergone complete clinical staging were reviewed for clinical and histopathologic data.
Results—All Patnaik grade 1 MCTs (n = 52) were classified as Kiupel low-grade MCTs, and all Patnaik grade 3 MCTs (43) were classified as Kiupel high-grade MCTs. Of the 291 Patnaik grade 2 MCTs, 243 (83.5%) were classified as Kiupel low-grade tumors, and 48 (16.5%) were classified as Kiupel high-grade MCTs. Dogs with Patnaik grade 3 MCTs were significantly more likely to have metastases at the time of initial examination than were dogs with grade 1 or 2 MCTs (OR, 5.46), and dogs with Kiupel high-grade MCTs were significantly more likely to have metastases than were dogs with Kiupel low-grade MCTs (OR, 2.54). However, 3 of 52 (5.8%) dogs with Patnaik grade 1 tumors, 48 of 291 (16.5%) dogs with Patnaik grade 2 tumors, and 44 of 295 (14.9%) dogs with Kiupel low-grade tumors had metastatic disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that in dogs with cutaneous MCTs, prognostication should not rely on histologic grade alone, regardless of grading system used, but should take into account results of clinical staging.