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- Author or Editor: Masayuki Nagase x
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Objective—To determine whether heartworm (HW) extract-induced shock in dogs is consistent with anaphylactic shock by examining the role of histamine.
Animals—6 mixed-breed dogs (3 without and 3 with HW infections) and 4 specific pathogen-free (SPF) Beagles.
Procedure—Four experiments were performed as follows: 1) 6 mixed-breed dogs were treated IV with 2 ml of HW extract, and plasma histamine concentrations were determined; 2) 4 SPF dogs were treated IV with 2 ml of HW extract and examined for shock; 3) sera from 6 dogs of experiment 1 and from 4 SPF dogs of experiment 2 that were obtained before HW extract treatment were tested for heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), using rabbits during a sensitization period of 48 to 72 hours; and 4) mast cell degranulation by HW extract was tested, using rat mesentery and canine cultured mast cells.
Results—Experiment 1: 6 dogs developed shock, and plasma histamine concentrations increased significantly from 0.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) ng/ml before HW extract treatment to 44.6 ± 68.9 ng/ml at the onset of shock; experiment 2: all SPF dogs developed shock and had an increase in plasma histamine concentrations; experiment 3: sera from mixed-breed dogs without HW infection and from SPF dogs had negative PCA reactions; experiment 4: HW extract degranulated rat mesentery mast cells and released histamine directly from canine mast cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that an unknown mast cell-degranulating substances contained in HW extract may degranulate mast cells directly, consequently releasing histamine that may participate in the onset of shock in HW extract-induced shock in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:770–774)
Objective—To characterize the clinical features of visceral mast cell tumors (MCT) without associated cutaneous involvement in dogs.
Animals—10 dogs with histologically confirmed MCT without associated cutaneous lesions.
Procedure—Information on signalment, clinical signs, laboratory examinations, and time from first admission to death was obtained from the medical record of each dog.
Results—Purebred male dogs of miniature breeds appeared to have a higher prevalence of visceral MCT. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. Anemia (n = 7), hypoproteinemia (5), and mastocythemia (5) were detected. Treatments, including glucocorticoids, were not successful. Primary sites of tumors were the gastrointestinal tract (n = 6) and the spleen or liver (1); the primary site was not confirmed in the remaining 3 dogs. In 7 dogs, tumors were categorized as grade II or III, on the basis of histologic findings. The prognoses were poor, and all dogs died within 2 months after first admission.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visceral MCT is uncommon in dogs, and the prognosis is extremely poor. Biological behavior and drug susceptibility of visceral MCT may be different from cutaneous MCT. The lack of specific clinical signs may result in delay of a definitive diagnosis. The rapid progression of clinical signs and difficulty in diagnosis contributes to a short survival time. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 222–226)