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  • Author or Editor: Mary H. Lafferty x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine survival times of selected dogs with metastatic (stage III) osteosarcoma, whether disease-free interval (DFI) was associated with survival time after diagnosis of stage III disease (ie, stage III survival time), and whether a survival benefit of metastasectomy existed.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 194 client-owned dogs treated for histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma from 1997 through 2009.

PROCEDURES Dogs were included if they had stage I or II osteosarcoma at the time of initial evaluation, had amputation of the affected appendage and ≥ 1 dose of chemotherapy afterward, and developed metastasis within the follow-up period or prior to death. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, primary tumor location, clinical and laboratory findings, whether metastasectomy was performed, and outcome. Various factors were examined for associations with outcome.

RESULTS Dogs that received no treatment for the metastasis had a median survival time between 49 and 57 days after diagnosis of stage III osteosarcoma. Duration of the preceding DFI had no association with this period. Metastasectomy alone was associated with a longer median stage III survival time (232 days) than no metastasectomy (49 days). Among all dogs identified as qualifying for pulmonary metastasectomy on the basis of < 3 pulmonary nodules visible on thoracic radiographs and a DFI > 275 days (n = 21), a survival advantage was also identified for those that actually received pulmonary metastasectomy (6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Preceding DFI had no influence on survival time of dogs with stage III osteosarcoma. Metastasectomy was associated with an increase in survival time for selected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of regional lymph node metastasis in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and determine whether regional lymph node metastasis was associated with shortened disease-free interval or survival time.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—228 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma in which regional lymph nodes were examined histologically at the time of limb amputation.

Procedure—Information collected from the medical records included signalment; affected site; initial serum alkaline phosphatase activity; whether treatment involved adjuvant chemotherapy and, if so, chemotherapeutic agents administered and number of treatments; disease-free interval; and survival time.

Results—10 (4.4%) dogs had histologic evidence of regional lymph node metastasis at the time of amputation. Median disease-free interval for dogs without regional lymph node metastasis (238 days; range, 0 to 1,067 days) was significantly longer than median disease-free interval for dogs with regional lymph node metastasis (48 days; range, 2 to 269 days). Median survival time for dogs without lymph node metastasis (318 days; range, 20 to 1,711 days) was significantly longer than median survival time for dogs with lymph node metastasis (59 days; range, 19 to 365 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that regional lymph node metastasis is rare in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma but that dogs with lymph node metastasis have a poorer prognosis than do dogs without. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1364–1367)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

A study was undertaken to determine the effect chemotherapy had when used to treat 45 dogs with measurable metastatic osteosarcoma. The primary tumor was histologically confirmed as an osteosarcoma in each case. Thirty-nine dogs had the primary tumor surgically removed. Twenty-four of these dogs were treated adjunctively with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 6 doses) prior to the onset of metastasis. The remaining 6 dogs from which the primary tumor was not surgically removed were diagnosed as having metastatic osteosarcoma in addition to the primary tumor on initial examination.

The median time from initial examination until the development of metastatic disease was 115 days (range, 27 to 1,199 days). The location of the metastatic disease was lungs (31 dogs), bone (3 dogs), soft tissue (1 dog), and multiple sites including lungs, bone, and soft tissue sites (10 dogs). The metastatic lesions were confirmed by pretreatment biopsy (n = 8) or cytologic evaluation (n = 2) in 10 cases and at necropsy in 27 cases. The remaining 8 cases were diagnosed radiographically as multiple metastatic lesions in the lungs consistent with metastatic osteosarcoma.

The metastatic disease was treated with cisplatin in 31 dogs (70 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 4 doses), doxorubicin in 11 dogs (30 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 3 doses), and mitoxantrone in 3 dogs (5 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 3 doses). Eight dogs that had metastatic disease treated with cisplatin were also given doxorubicin; 2 dogs treated with either doxorubicin or mitoxantrone were treated subsequently with cisplatin. The extent of neoplastic disease was determined immediately before the first dose of chemotherapy, and then every 3 to 6 weeks thereafter unless the dog had signs compatible with progressive disease, in which case, an evaluation was done more frequently. Each dog was treated with one chemotherapeutic agent until the dog developed progressive disease, or until the dog's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian. One dog treated with doxorubicin achieved partial remission. The duration of the partial remission was 21 days, and the lesion was confirmed to be osteosarcoma on necropsy 159 days after the metastatic disease was diagnosed. The median survival time of the other 44 dogs that did not respond to treatment from the time the metastatic disease was diagnosed was 61 days (range, 14 to 192 days). Cisplatin, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone chemotherapy appear to be ineffective for the treatment of measurable metastatic osteosarcoma in the dog.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effect of adjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy on outcome in dogs with highgrade (grade 3) soft tissue sarcomas (HGSTSs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—39 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with HGSTSs were reviewed. Dogs treated with surgery alone or receiving single-agent doxorubicin chemotherapy postoperatively were included in the study. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for followup information. Slides from histologic sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of HGSTSs. Cases in which follow-up examination was not performed and radiation therapy or chemotherapy other than doxorubicin was administered were excluded.

Results—39 dogs met inclusion criteria. Twenty-one dogs received adjuvant doxorubicin. Tumor-, patient-, and treatment-related variables were not significantly associated with measured outcomes including local, metastatic, and overall disease-free intervals as well as survival time. Overall median disease-free interval was 724 days with a median survival time of 856 days for all dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy did not benefit this population of dogs with HGSTSs. Outcome for visceral HGSTSs was similar to that of nonvisceral HGSTSs in these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1442–1448)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the biological behavior, clinical outcome, and prognostic factors of osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—183 client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated for osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium from 1986 through 2012 were reviewed. Dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of osteosarcoma and treated for a primary tumor arising from these bones of the head were included.

Results—Mean age was 9.3 years, and body weight was 31.8 kg (70.0 lb). Most dogs (124/183 [67.8%]) were purebred, and the most common primary tumor site was the maxilla (80 [43.7%]). Treatments included palliative medical treatment only (11/183 [6.0%]), coarsely fractionated radiation therapy (RT; 12 [6.6%]), fractionated or stereotactic RT (18 [9.8%]), surgery (135 [73.8%]), and both surgery and fractionated RT (7 [3.8%]). Eighty-three (45.4%) dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy. Local recurrence or progression occurred in 80 of 156 (51.3%) dogs, and 60 of 156 (38.5%) dogs developed distant metastases. Median survival time for all dogs was 239 days. Dogs that underwent surgery had a median survival time of 329 days. Histologically tumor-free surgical margins were associated with significantly decreased hazards of progression or recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 0.4) and death (HR, 0.5). Dogs with osteosarcoma of the calvarium had a significantly greater hazard of local recurrence or progression (HR, 2.0).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, tumor excision in dogs with histologically tumor-free margins resulted in better local control and longer survival time than did other treatment types.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcome, and prognostic variables in a cohort of dogs surviving > 1 year after an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—90 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records for an 11-year period from 1997 through 2008 were reviewed, and patients with appendicular osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year after initial histopathologic diagnosis were studied. Variables including signalment, weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, surgery, and adjuvant therapies were recorded. Median survival times were calculated by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival function. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the survival function for categorical variables, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the likelihood of death > 1 year after diagnosis on the basis of the selected risk factors.

Results—90 dogs met the inclusion criteria; clinical laboratory information was not available in all cases. Median age was 8.2 years (range, 2.7 to 13.3 years), and median weight was 38 kg (83.6 lb; range, 21 to 80 kg [46.2 to 176 lb]). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was high in 29 of 60 (48%) dogs. The most common tumor location was the distal portion of the radius (54/90 [60%]). Eighty-nine of 90 (99%) dogs underwent surgery, and 78 (87%) received chemotherapy. Overall, 49 of 90 (54%) dogs developed metastatic disease. The median survival time beyond 1 year was 243 days (range, 1 to 1,899 days). Dogs that developed a surgical-site infection after limb-sparing surgery had a significantly improved prognosis > 1 year after osteosarcoma diagnosis, compared with dogs that did not develop infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicated that dogs with an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year had a median survival time beyond the initial year of approximately 8 months. As reported previously, the development of a surgical-site infection in dogs undergoing a limb-sparing surgery significantly affected prognosis and warrants further study.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research