Objective—To assess the influence of preanesthetic
administration of acetylpromazine or morphine and
fluids on urine production, arginine vasopressin (AVP;
previously known as antidiuretic hormone) concentrations,
mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma
osmolality (Osm), PCV, and concentration of total
solids (TS) during anesthesia and surgery in dogs.
Animals—19 adult dogs.
Procedure—Concentration of AVP, indirect MAP,
Osm, PCV, and concentration of TS were measured at
5 time points (before administration of acetylpromazine
or morphine, after administration of those
drugs, after induction of anesthesia, 1 hour after the
start of surgery, and 2 hours after the start of
surgery). Urine output and end-tidal halothane concentrations
were measured 1 and 2 hours after the
start of surgery. All dogs were administered lactated
Ringer's solution (20 ml/kg of body weight/h, IV) during
Results—Compared with values for acetylpromazine,
preoperative administration of morphine resulted in
significantly lower urine output during the surgical
period. Groups did not differ significantly for AVP concentration,
Osm, MAP, and end-tidal halothane concentration;
however, PCV and concentration of TS
decreased over time in both groups and were lower in
dogs given acetylpromazine.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preanesthetic
administration of morphine resulted in significantly
lower urine output, compared with values after
administration of acetylpromazine, which cannot be
explained by differences in AVP concentration or MAP.
When urine output is used as a guide for determining
rate for IV administration of fluids in the perioperative
period, the type of preanesthetic agent used must be
considered.(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1922–1927)
Objective—To evaluate effects of anesthesia,
surgery, and intravenous administration of fluids on
plasma concentrations of antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
concentration of total solids (TS), PCV, arterial blood
pressure (BP), plasma osmolality, and urine output in
Animals—22 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—11 dogs did not receive fluids, and 11
received 20 ml of lactated Ringer's solution/kg of body
weight/h. Plasma ADH adn TS concentrations, PCV,
osmolality, and arterial BP were measured before anesthesia
(T0) and after administration of preanesthetic
agents (T1), induction of anesthesia (T2), and 1 and 2
hours of surgery (T3 and T4, respectively). Urine output
was measured at T3 and T4.
Results—ADH concentrations increased at T1, T3, and
T4, compared with concentrations at T0. Concentration
of TS and PCV decreased at all times after administration
of preanesthetic drugs. Plasma ADH concentration
was less at T3 in dogs that received fluids, compared
with those that did not. Blood pressure did not
differ between groups, and osmolality did not increase
> 1% from T0 value at any time. At T4, rate of urine production
was less in dogs that did not receive fluids,
compared with those that did.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma ADH
concentration increased and PCV and TS concentration
decreased in response to anesthesia and
surgery. Intravenous administration of fluids resulted
in increased urine output but had no effect on ADH
concentration or arterial BP. The causes and effects of
increased plasma ADH concentrations may affect efficacious
administration of fluids during the perioperative
period in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To evaluate the effects of nephrotomy on
renal function in clinically normal cats.
Animals—20 specific-pathogen-free, 9- to 11-month old
female mixed-breed cats.
Procedure—Serum chemistry analyses, CBC determinations,
urinalyses, microbiologic urine cultures,
renal ultrasonography, abdominal radiography, and
single-kidney and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
determinations by use of renal scintigraphy and measurements
of plasma disappearance of technetium
99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were performed
before surgery and at 3, 12, 26, 52, and 78
weeks after surgery in 10 cats that underwent unilateral
nephrotomy and in 10 control cats that underwent
a sham surgical procedure.
Results—Two cats (1 from each group) did not complete
the study, and their data were eliminated from
analyses. Unilateral nephrotomy resulted in a 10% to
20% reduction in mean single-kidney GFR, compared
with that of nephrotomy contralateral control kidneys.
However, mean total GFR in nephrotomy-group cats
was not significantly different from that of shamgroup
cats. Over the 78 weeks of study, mean total
GFR declined 34% and 40% in nephrotomy- and
sham-group cats, respectively. Adverse events associated
with nephrotomy included persistent microscopic
hematuria, renal pelvis hyperechogenicity with
distant shadowing on ultrasonographic evaluation,
dilatation of renal pelves, and hydronephrosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nephrotomy
in normal functioning feline kidneys results in a modest
relative reduction in renal function, compared with
contralateral kidney controls, but has minimal effect
on total GFR when compared with sham-operated
control cats. However, any detrimental effects of
nephrotomy may be magnified in cats with diseased
kidneys, which may have little or no capacity for repair
or compensation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1400–1407)
Objective—To determine whether autologous jugular veins provide functional grafts with high 30-day patency rates in an experimental model of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting performed with a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure.
Animals—15 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—A segment of the left jugular vein was implanted between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to surgery, at day 4 to 7, and at day 30 after surgery. Selective angiograms were performed immediately after surgery and on day 30. Oximetric shunt calculations were made via terminal angiography prior to euthanasia. Gross and histologic evaluations of the grafts were conducted.
Results—Grafts were patent in 12 of 15 dogs 30 days after surgery as assessed via auscultation, color Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and histologic examination. Echocardiographic analysis revealed compensatory eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio was 1.5:1. Histologic evidence of endothelialization of the anastomotic sites and vein graft arterialization was detectable at 30 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autologous jugular vein grafts were effectively used to create a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt by use of a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure. High patency, ready accessibility, low cost, and theoretical adaptative remodeling during patient growth make autologous jugular vein grafts a valuable alternative to synthetic materials.