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  • Author or Editor: Marlee A. Richter x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess the influence of preanesthetic administration of acetylpromazine or morphine and fluids on urine production, arginine vasopressin (AVP; previously known as antidiuretic hormone) concentrations, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma osmolality (Osm), PCV, and concentration of total solids (TS) during anesthesia and surgery in dogs.

Animals—19 adult dogs.

Procedure—Concentration of AVP, indirect MAP, Osm, PCV, and concentration of TS were measured at 5 time points (before administration of acetylpromazine or morphine, after administration of those drugs, after induction of anesthesia, 1 hour after the start of surgery, and 2 hours after the start of surgery). Urine output and end-tidal halothane concentrations were measured 1 and 2 hours after the start of surgery. All dogs were administered lactated Ringer's solution (20 ml/kg of body weight/h, IV) during surgery.

Results—Compared with values for acetylpromazine, preoperative administration of morphine resulted in significantly lower urine output during the surgical period. Groups did not differ significantly for AVP concentration, Osm, MAP, and end-tidal halothane concentration; however, PCV and concentration of TS decreased over time in both groups and were lower in dogs given acetylpromazine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preanesthetic administration of morphine resulted in significantly lower urine output, compared with values after administration of acetylpromazine, which cannot be explained by differences in AVP concentration or MAP. When urine output is used as a guide for determining rate for IV administration of fluids in the perioperative period, the type of preanesthetic agent used must be considered.(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1922–1927)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of anesthesia, surgery, and intravenous administration of fluids on plasma concentrations of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), concentration of total solids (TS), PCV, arterial blood pressure (BP), plasma osmolality, and urine output in healthy dogs.

Animals—22 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—11 dogs did not receive fluids, and 11 received 20 ml of lactated Ringer's solution/kg of body weight/h. Plasma ADH adn TS concentrations, PCV, osmolality, and arterial BP were measured before anesthesia (T0) and after administration of preanesthetic agents (T1), induction of anesthesia (T2), and 1 and 2 hours of surgery (T3 and T4, respectively). Urine output was measured at T3 and T4.

Results—ADH concentrations increased at T1, T3, and T4, compared with concentrations at T0. Concentration of TS and PCV decreased at all times after administration of preanesthetic drugs. Plasma ADH concentration was less at T3 in dogs that received fluids, compared with those that did not. Blood pressure did not differ between groups, and osmolality did not increase > 1% from T0 value at any time. At T4, rate of urine production was less in dogs that did not receive fluids, compared with those that did.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma ADH concentration increased and PCV and TS concentration decreased in response to anesthesia and surgery. Intravenous administration of fluids resulted in increased urine output but had no effect on ADH concentration or arterial BP. The causes and effects of increased plasma ADH concentrations may affect efficacious administration of fluids during the perioperative period in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 1273–1276)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of nephrotomy on renal function in clinically normal cats.

Animals—20 specific-pathogen-free, 9- to 11-month old female mixed-breed cats.

Procedure—Serum chemistry analyses, CBC determinations, urinalyses, microbiologic urine cultures, renal ultrasonography, abdominal radiography, and single-kidney and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determinations by use of renal scintigraphy and measurements of plasma disappearance of technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were performed before surgery and at 3, 12, 26, 52, and 78 weeks after surgery in 10 cats that underwent unilateral nephrotomy and in 10 control cats that underwent a sham surgical procedure.

Results—Two cats (1 from each group) did not complete the study, and their data were eliminated from analyses. Unilateral nephrotomy resulted in a 10% to 20% reduction in mean single-kidney GFR, compared with that of nephrotomy contralateral control kidneys. However, mean total GFR in nephrotomy-group cats was not significantly different from that of shamgroup cats. Over the 78 weeks of study, mean total GFR declined 34% and 40% in nephrotomy- and sham-group cats, respectively. Adverse events associated with nephrotomy included persistent microscopic hematuria, renal pelvis hyperechogenicity with distant shadowing on ultrasonographic evaluation, dilatation of renal pelves, and hydronephrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nephrotomy in normal functioning feline kidneys results in a modest relative reduction in renal function, compared with contralateral kidney controls, but has minimal effect on total GFR when compared with sham-operated control cats. However, any detrimental effects of nephrotomy may be magnified in cats with diseased kidneys, which may have little or no capacity for repair or compensation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1400–1407)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether autologous jugular veins provide functional grafts with high 30-day patency rates in an experimental model of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting performed with a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure.

Animals—15 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—A segment of the left jugular vein was implanted between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries. Echocardiograms were obtained prior to surgery, at day 4 to 7, and at day 30 after surgery. Selective angiograms were performed immediately after surgery and on day 30. Oximetric shunt calculations were made via terminal angiography prior to euthanasia. Gross and histologic evaluations of the grafts were conducted.

Results—Grafts were patent in 12 of 15 dogs 30 days after surgery as assessed via auscultation, color Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and histologic examination. Echocardiographic analysis revealed compensatory eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio was 1.5:1. Histologic evidence of endothelialization of the anastomotic sites and vein graft arterialization was detectable at 30 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autologous jugular vein grafts were effectively used to create a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt by use of a modified Blalock-Taussig procedure. High patency, ready accessibility, low cost, and theoretical adaptative remodeling during patient growth make autologous jugular vein grafts a valuable alternative to synthetic materials.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research