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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of fentanyl citrate after IV or transdermal administration in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats with a mean weight of 3.78 kg.

Procedure—Each cat was given fentanyl IV (25 mg/cat; mean ± SD dosage, 7.19 ± 1.17 mg/kg of body weight) and via a transdermal patch (25 µg of fentanyl/h). Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by use of radioimmunoassay. Pharmacokinetic analyses of plasma drug concentrations were conducted, using an automated curvestripping process followed by nonlinear, leastsquares regression. Transdermal delivery of drug was calculated by use of IV pharmacokinetic data.

Results—Plasma concentrations of fentanyl given IV decreased rapidly (mean elimination half-life, 2.35 ± 0.57 hours). Mean ± SEM calculated rate of transdermal delivery of fentanyl was 8.48 ± 1.7 mg/h (< 36% of the theoretical 25 mg/h). Median steadystate concentration of fentanyl 12 to 100 hours after application of the transdermal patch was 1.58 ng/ml. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl < 1.0 ng/ml were detected in 4 of 6 cats 12 hours after patch application, 5 of 6 cats 18 and 24 hours after application, and 6 of 6 cats 36 hours after application.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, transdermal administration provides sustained plasma concentrations of fentanyl citrate throughout a 5- day period. Variation of plasma drug concentrations with transdermal absorption for each cat was pronounced. Transdermal administration of fentanyl has potential for use in cats for long-term control of pain after surgery or chronic pain associated with cancer. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:672–677)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) virus 1 (BVDV1), or BVDV 2 (BVDV2) were shed after parenteral administration of a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—28 healthy beef calves and 4 healthy pregnant beef cows.

Procedure—A commercially available modified-live virus multivalent vaccine was administered to steers and heifers (n = 18) that were seronegative to BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2. Four seronegative pregnant control cows were held in contact with the vaccinated calves for 103 days. Unvaccinated calves (n = 10) were held as controls in a separate double-fenced pen. Seroconversion was monitored by determining serum neutralization titers after vaccination. Viral shedding and viremia were assessed via analysis of nasal swab specimens and blood by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR assays and virus isolation.

Results—A transient BVDV1 viremia was detected in most vaccinated calves 3 to 10 days after vaccination. All vaccinated calves seroconverted to BVDV1 and BVDV2. Seventeen of 18 vaccinated calves seroconverted to BHV1. Viral shedding was not detected in the vaccinated calves. All control cattle remained seronegative to BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 after vaccination was either nonexistent or undetected and did not result in transmission of BHV1, BVDV1, or BVDV2 vaccine viruses to pregnant contact control cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1399–1403)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify knowledge and practices related to rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring among animal care workers in the United States.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 2,334 animal care workers (ie, veterinarians, veterinary technicians, animal control workers, and wildlife rehabilitators).

PROCEDURES Participants were contacted through relevant professional organizations to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. The survey collected demographic and occupational information, animal handling and potential rabies exposure information, and individual rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring practices. Comparisons of animal bite and rabies exposure rates were made between occupational groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with rabies vaccination status and adherence to serologic monitoring recommendations.

RESULTS Respondents reported 0.77 animal bites/person-year or 0.10 bites/1,000 animals handled. The overall rate of postexposure prophylaxis due to an occupational rabies exposure was 1.07/100 person-years. Veterinarians reported the highest rabies vaccination rate (98.7% [367/372]), followed by animal control workers (78.5% [344/438]), wildlife rehabilitators (78.2% [122/156]), and veterinary technicians (69.3% [937/1,352]). Respondents working for employers requiring rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring were 32.16 and 6.14 times, respectively, as likely to be vaccinated or have a current serologic monitoring status as were respondents working for employers without such policies.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, given the high reported rates of animal bites and potential rabies exposures among animal care workers, improvements in rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring practices are needed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.

Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.

Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research