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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clearance of the vaccine strain, immunologic responses, and potential shedding of Brucella abortus strain RB51 organisms after vaccination of bison calves.

Animals

Fourteen 7-month-old female bison calves.

Procedure

10 bison calves were vaccinated SC with 1.22 × 1010 colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51. Four bison calves were vaccinated SC with 0.15M NaCl solution. Rectal, vaginal, nasal, and ocular swab specimens were obtained to evaluate potential shedding by vaccinated bison. The superficial cervical lymph node was biopsied to evaluate clearance of the vaccine strain. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to strain RB51 bacteria were evaluated in lymph node cells obtained from biopsy specimens and also in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Results

Strain RB51 was recovered from superficial cervical lymph nodes of vaccinates examined 6, 12, and 18 weeks after vaccination (4/4, 3/4, and 1/4, respectively) but not in vaccinates examined at 24 weeks (0/3) after vaccination or nonvaccinates examined at all sample collection times (n = 1 bison/sample period). Serologic, immunologic, and bacterial culture techniques failed to reveal shedding of strain RB51 by vaccinates or infection of nonvaccinated bison. Lymphocyte proliferative responses were evident in lymph node cells and blood mononuclear cells from strain RB51-vaccinated bison beginning 12 weeks after vaccination.

Conclusion

Strain RB51 was cleared from bison by 18 to 24 weeks after vaccination. Bison vaccinated with strain RB51 did not shed the vaccine strain to nonvaccinated bison housed in close proximity. Strain RB51 did not induce antibody responses in bison that would interfere with brucellosis surveillance tests, but did stimulate cell-mediated immunity. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:410–415)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of clopidogrel and the metabolite SR 26334 in dogs.

Animals—9 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—8 dogs received clopidogrel (mean ± SD 1.13 ± 0.17 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 3 days; 5 of these dogs subsequently received a lower dose of clopidogrel (0.5 ± 0.18 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 3 days. Later, 5 dogs received clopidogrel (1.09 ± 0.12 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days. Blood samples were collected for optical platelet aggregometry, citrated native and platelet mapping thrombelastography (TEG), and measurement of plasma drug concentrations. Impedance aggregometry was performed on samples from 3 dogs in each 3-day treatment group.

Results—ADP-induced platelet aggregation decreased (mean ± SD 93 ± 6% and 80 ± 22% of baseline values, respectively) after 72 hours in dogs in both 3-day treatment groups; duration of effect ranged from > 3 to > 7 days. Platelet mapping TEG and impedance aggregometry yielded similar results. Citrated native TEG was not different among groups. Clopidogrel was not detected in any samples; in dogs given 1.13 ± 0.17 mg/kg, maximum concentration of SR 26334 (mean ± SD, 0.206 ± 0.2 μg/mL) was detected 1 hour after administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clopidogrel inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in healthy dogs and may be a viable antiplatelet agent for use in dogs.

Impact for Human Medicine—Pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel in dogs were similar to effects reported in humans; clopidogrel may be useful in studies involving dogs used to investigate human disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To summarize the radiographic and clinical findings, treatment, and outcome in cattle with osteochondrosis diagnosed radiographically.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Sample Population

29 cattle with radiographic evidence of osteochondrosis.

Procedures

Medical records were reviewed, and owners or referring veterinarians were contacted for outcome assessment. Data were analyzed for potential interactions between osteochondrosis classification (osteochondritis dessicans vs subchondral cyst-like lesions), clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome, using Fisher’s exact test and descriptive statistics.

Results

Osteochondrosis was associated with young, male, purebred cattle, clinical evidence of lameness, and radiographic evidence of concurrent degenerative joint disease. Osteochondritis dissecans and subchondral cyst-like lesions had similar clinical findings and outcomes but varied significantly in their radiographic distribution among joints. Osteochondrosis often manifests clinically as a unilateral condition, but bilateral lesions were often found (88%) when limbs were radiographically examined. Cattle managed conservatively tended to be culled (within 6 months of diagnosis because of lameness) more often than those managed surgically, despite the lack of treatment bias.

Clinical Implications

Osteochondrosis in cattle is often associated with lameness or degenerative joint disease. Conservative management does not result in a favorable clinical prognosis for long-term, lameness-free survival, and more studies need to be completed to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of osteochondrosis in cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1566–1570)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The role of interleukin-1 (il-1), interleukin-6 (il- 6), and tumor necrosis factor α during endotoxin-induced mastitis in cows was characterized. Six cows had 10 μg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide infused into 1 mammary gland. Three other cows served as nontreated controls. Within 1.5 to 2.5 hours after infusion, endotoxin caused obvious edema of the mammary gland and increased serum albumin concentration in milk of infused glands 6 times. Milk somatic cell count began to increase 3 to 5 hours after infusion in all treated glands. At 7 hours after infusion, somatic cell counts were increased >10 times, compared with counts in milk from control cows. Pyrexia of >1 C developed in only 1 cow, but all treated cows had serum cortisol concentrations >50 ng/ml in response to endotoxin treatment. High concentrations of il-1 (10 to 600 U/ml) and il-6 (2 to 22 U/ml) were detected in milk of infused glands beginning 2.5 to 4 hours after infusion. Endotoxin did not induce detectable amounts of tumor necrosis factor activity in milk or serum. Swelling and mammary gland permeability changes preceded any detectable increase in il-1 and il-6 activity, indicating that these clinical signs of inflammation were not mediated by these cytokines. Systemic responses and the leukocytic influx into endotoxin-infused glands developed after or concurrently with initial increases in il-1 and il-6 activities in milk. These results suggested that il-1 and il-6 may have a role in mammary gland defenses and in the pathophysiologic changes during endotoxin-induced mastitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish that female calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 at 3, 5, and 7 months of age are protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed during their first pregnancy.

Animals

Polled Hereford heifer calves obtained from a brucellosis-free herd.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated SC at 3, 5, or 7 months of age with strain RB51 (n = 26), strain 19 (n = 16), or sterile saline solution (n = 15). Calves were bred at 16 to 17 months of age and challenged exposed during the first pregnancy with virulent B abortus strain 2308.

Results

After vaccination, none of the heifers given strain RB51 developed serum antibodies that reacted in the standard tube agglutination test, but reacted in a dotblot assay, using RB51 antigen. B abortus was cultured from biopsy specimens of superficial cervical lymph nodes in the RB51 and S19 vaccinates at 10 weeks, but not at 12 weeks after vaccination. All 4 heifers that had been vaccinated with RB51 at 3 months of age were protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed. Vaccination at 5 and 7 months of age gave equivalent protection. Heifers given strain 19 were 95% protected and controls (given saline solution) had a high incidence of infection and abortion.

Conclusions

Strain RB51 is protective at doses comparable to those of strain 19 in calves 3 to 10 months of age.

Clinical Relevance

Immunogenicity and failure to induce antibodies that interfere with the serologic diagnosis of field infections of B abortus make strain RB51 an effective vaccine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1153—1156)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effects of 2 compounds with α-adrenergic antagonist properties on the urethral pressures of anesthetized, healthy, sexually intact male cats, and to evaluate one of the compounds for effect on striated muscle.

Animals

20 healthy, sexually intact male cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized with halothane, and urethral pressure profilometry was performed before and after treatment. 125l-labeled α-bungarotoxin bound to nicotinic receptors of murine skeletal muscle was used in a competitive binding study with acepromazine maleate.

Results

Acepromazine maleate significantly decreased intraurethral pressures in the preprostatic (19%) and pro-static (21%) regions of the urethra. There was no effect on the postprostatic/penile segment. Acepromazine did not inhibit 125l-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic receptors in murine skeletal muscle. Phenoxybenzamine significantly decreased intraurethral pressures (14%) in the preprostatic region of the urethra only.

Conclusions

Acepromazine maleate and phenoxy-benzamine have effects on the smooth muscle of the urethra of healthy, male cats. Acepromazine has no effect on striated muscle.

Clinical Relevance

α-Adrenergic compounds may be used in the pharmacologic management of feline urinary tract disease. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1497-1500)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of the skeletal muscle-relaxing drug dantrolene sodium alone, and in combination with the α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin, on the urethral pressure profile were investigated in male cats with obstructive lower urinary tract disease. Decreases in mean segmental intraurethral pressure induced by dantrolene (n = 3) or dantrolene in combination with prazosin (n = 3) were evaluated statistically, using a paired design. Statistical analysis was applied to absolute (mm of Hg) pressure values. Intravenous administration of dantrolene alone (1 mg/ kg of body weight, n = 3) significantly decreased pressure in the postprostatic/penile urethral segment, but did not decrease prostatic urethral pressures. Dantrolene in combination with prazosin (0.03 mg/kg, iv) caused a 20% pressure decrease in the prostatic segment (P = 0.060). Preprostatic urethral pressure was not significantly affected by either treatment regimen in the small pool of cats studied. There was no difference in baseline pressures (mm of Hg) in the 3 intraurethral segments of these 6 recently obstructed male cats, compared with historic baseline pressures (mm of Hg) in the 3 intraurethral segments of 28 healthy male cats.

These results indicate that dantrolene and prazosin may be effective in relaxing intraurethral skeletal and smooth musculature in male cats clinically afflicted with obstructive lower urinary tract disease. However, it is not certain that administration of muscle relaxants would facilitate urethral catheterization and removal of the obstruction in male cats with blockage of the lower urinary tract. Strikingly, results of this study suggest that urethral muscle spasm had a minor role in these cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the ability of acetaminophen-codeine (AC; 15.5 to 18.5 mg/kg and 1.6 to 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) or carprofen (4.2 to 4.5 mg/kg) administered PO to attenuate experimentally induced lameness in dogs.

ANIMALS

7 purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES

A blinded crossover study was performed. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive AC or carprofen treatment first and then the alternate treatment a minimum of 21 days later. Synovitis was induced in 1 stifle joint during each treatment by intra-articular injection of sodium urate (SU). Ground reaction forces were assessed, and clinical lameness was scored at baseline (before lameness induction) and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after SU injection. Plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, carprofen, codeine, and morphine were measured at various points. Data were compared between and within treatments by repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS

During AC treatment, dogs had significantly higher lameness scores than during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours after SU injection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse during AC treatment were significantly lower than values during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours. Plasma concentrations of carprofen (R)- and (S)-enantiomers ranged from 2.5 to 19.2 μg/mL and 4.6 to 25.0 μg/mL, respectively, over a 24-hour period. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 4.6 μg/mL and codeine concentrations from 7.0 to 26.8 ng/mL, whereas plasma morphine concentrations ranged from 4.0 to 58.6 ng/mL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carprofen as administered was more effective than AC at attenuating SU-induced lameness in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether measurement of blood cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations with a cage-side analyzer could be used to differentiate cardiac from noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats.

Design—Prospective, multicenter study.

Animals—44 client-owned cats with dyspnea and 37 healthy staff-owned cats.

Procedures—Affected cats were examined because of dyspnea; treatment was administered in accordance with the attending clinician's discretion. Cats were judged to have a cardiac or noncardiac cause of dyspnea on the basis of results of physical examination, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Blood cTnI concentrations were determined with a cage-side analyzer on samples collected within 12 hours after admission of affected cats. Concentrations for healthy cats were obtained for comparison.

Results—5 enrolled cats were excluded from the study because of concurrent cardiac and respiratory disease. Of the remaining 39 cats with dyspnea, 25 had a cardiac cause and 14 had a noncardiac cause. The 25 cats with a cardiac cause of dyspnea had a significantly higher blood cTnI concentration than did the 37 healthy cats or the 14 cats with a noncardiac cause of dyspnea.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of cTnI concentrations with a cage-side assay in emergency settings may be useful for differentiating cardiac from noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Effects of the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine (n = 9), the centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant diazepam (n = 11), and the direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene sodium (n = 8) on the urethral pressure profile were evaluated in anesthetized, healthy, sexually intact, adult male cats. Intravenous administration of succinylcholine (0.075 mg/kg of body weight) significantly decreased mean absolute pressure in the prostatic and post-prostatic/penile intraurethral segments by −9.5 and −6.5 mm of Hg, respectively (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0006, respectively). Dantrolene (1.0 mg/kg, iv) significantly decreased mean prostatic and postprostatic/penile intraurethral segmental pressures by −3.5 and −2.8 mm of Hg, respectively (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0181, respectively). Diazepam (0.8 mg/kg, iv) did not significantly alter mean intraurethral segmental pressures. None of the drugs caused a change in segmental lengths of the urethra. These results indicate that skeletal muscle makes a substantial contribution to intraurethral tone in anesthetized, healthy, sexually intact male cats and that skeletal muscle relaxation may be successful in reducing prostatic and post-prostatic/penile urethral segmental tone in male cats. These results also suggest that dantrolene sodium may be valuable for the pharmacologic management of urethral disorders in male cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research