Objective—To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in camelids treated for osseous sequestration.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—27 alpacas and 9 llamas with osseous sequestration.
Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed to identify camelids evaluated because of osseous sequestration between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010. Data on history, signalment, physical examination and medical imaging findings, treatment, and complications were collected.
Results—Records of 36 camelids were included, of which there were 22 sexually intact males, 11 females, and 2 castrated males with a median age of 7. 5 months, 3.9 months, and 8.5 years, respectively (age and sex were not available for 1 camelid). The most common clinical signs were lameness, swelling over the affected bone, and associated draining sinus. Sequestra were associated with trauma in 7 (19%) camelids. Camelids with sequestra not associated with trauma (n = 29 [81%]) were significantly younger than those with sequestra attributed to trauma. Thirty-four camelids underwent sequestrectomy, and all survived to hospital discharge (median duration of hospitalization, 6.5 days). Recurrence of a sequestrum occurred twice in 1 (3%) camelid. Long-term follow-up (≥ 12 months) information was available on 24 camelids, of which 20 (83%) recovered without long-term complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike in other livestock, trauma was not a primary cause of osseous sequestration in camelids. Sequestra should be considered in the differential diagnostic process in camelids with lameness, a draining sinus, or a firm swelling over a bony prominence. Sequestrectomy is a successful treatment option.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-hour-old 6.3-kg (13.9-lb) female alpaca cria was evaluated because of severe respiratory distress and difficulty nursing since birth.
CLINICAL FINDINGS The cria had open-mouth breathing and cyanotic membranes, with no airflow evident from either nostril. Supplemental oxygen was delivered, and the patient was anesthetized and intubated orotracheally; a CT evaluation of the head confirmed bilateral membranous obstruction of the nasal cavities, consistent with complete bilateral choanal atresia.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Choanal atresia was treated with an endoscopically assisted balloon-dilation technique, and temporary tracheostomy was performed. Stenosis recurred, requiring revision of the repair and intranasal stent placement 3 days after the first surgery. The tracheostomy tube was removed the next day. Complications during hospitalization included mucoid obstruction of the tracheostomy tube, granulation tissue development in the trachea near the tracheostomy site, mucoid stent obstruction, aspiration pneumonia, and presumed partial failure of passive transfer of immunity. The stents were removed 2 weeks after admission, and the cria was discharged 3 days later. The owner was advised that the animal should not be bred. At last follow-up 3 years later, the alpaca was doing well.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical treatment with a balloon-dilation technique and placement of nasal stents with endoscopic guidance were curative in this neonatal alpaca with bilateral membranous choanal atresia. Computed tomography was useful to determine the nature of the atresia and aid surgical planning. Because a genetic component is likely, owners should be advised to prevent affected animals from breeding.
Objective—To evaluate indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—95 cattle that underwent rumenotomy or rumenostomy.
Procedures—Medical records for 95 cattle that underwent either rumenostomy or rumenotomy at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals in 1999 through 2011 were analyzed. Reasons for the procedures were noted. Long-term outcome was determined during telephone interviews with owners.
Results—42 (44%) bovids underwent rumenostomy and 53 (56%) bovids underwent rumenotomy. Among the 42 animals undergoing rumenostomy, 18 (43%) had rumen cannulas placed during elective procedures. Other indications for rumenostomy included ruminal tympany (bloat [n = 20]), esophageal obstruction (choke ), grain overload (1), and provision of access for administration of enteral nutrition (2). Indications for rumenotomy included traumatic reticuloperitonitis (n = 31), bloat (9), foreign body (6), choke (5), and other (2). Long-term follow-up data were available for 31 of 42 (74%) bovids that underwent rumenostomy. Of those 31 animals, 17 (55%) were still in the herd, 4 (13%) had been culled, and 10 (32%) had died or were euthanized. Long-term follow-up data were available for 38 of 53 (72%) bovids that underwent rumenotomy. Of those 38 animals, 13 (34%) were still in the herd, 14 (37%) had been culled, and 11 (29%) had died or been euthanized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that rumenotomy and rumenostomy can be effective in treating or relieving complications secondary to forestomach disorders in cattle. Bovids undergoing rumen surgery had a favorable prognosis for survival and a fair prognosis for potential return to production.
Objective—To describe the clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in alpacas treated for scapulohumeral joint luxation (SHJL).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of alpacas with SHJL that were treated at 2 referral hospitals were reviewed. History, signalment, physical examination results, radiographic findings, treatments, complications, and outcome were evaluated.
Results—Records for 8 male and 2 female alpacas with 16 instances of SHJL were reviewed. Three male alpacas each had 2 recurrences of SHJL in the treated limb. The proportion of male alpacas treated for SHJL was significantly greater than the proportion of female alpacas treated for SHJL. Closed reduction was used in 2 female and 3 male alpacas; SHJL reccurred in the 3 males. Stabilization by use of a lateral extracapsular tension band suture technique was performed successfully in 4 male alpacas; in another male alpaca, reluxation caused by self-inflicted trauma occurred postoperatively. In 2 male alpacas, arthrodesis was performed but residual lameness remained 1 year after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SHJL should be considered as a differential diagnosis in alpacas with thoracic limb lameness. Luxation may occur more frequently in males. A closed reduction technique may be used successfully to treat acute luxations. Extracapsular stabilization by use of the lateral extracapsular tension band suture technique was successful for treatment of recurrent SHJL and SHJL that could not be reduced via closed reduction.
Objective—To determine the response of cortical bone to a multicomponent and nanostructural polymeric matrix as a drug delivery system for enhancing bone healing.
Animals—20 healthy adult crossbred goats.
Procedures—A 3.5-mm-diameter unicortical defect was created in each tibia (day 0), and goats (4 goats/group) were treated as follows: not treated (control group), grafted with the matrix, grafted with antimicrobial (tigecycline and tobramycin)–impregnated matrix, grafted with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (rhBMP-2)–impregnated matrix, or grafted with antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix. Elution kinetics of antimicrobials was monitored through plasma concentrations. Bone response was assessed with radiographic scoring (days 1 and 30) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (days 1, 14, and 30). Goats were euthanized on day 30, and histomorphologic analysis was performed. Categorical variables were analyzed with a generalized linear model, and continuous variables were analyzed with an ANOVA.
Results—Plasma antimicrobial concentrations indicated continued release throughout the study. Radiography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry did not reveal significant differences among treatments on day 30. Periosteal reactions were significantly greater surrounding bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix than those not treated or grafted with matrix or with antimicrobial-impregnated matrix; periosteal reactions were similar in bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix and antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The matrix served as an antimicrobial delivery system and stimulated bone proliferation when rhBMP-2 was present. Antimicrobial and rhBMP-2 can be used concurrently, but the presence of antimicrobials may affect the performance of rhBMP-2.