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To evaluate ex vivo angiogenesis of equine arterial rings in response to various growth media.


Facial arteries were dissected from 11 horses post-euthanasia. Equine platelet lysate (ePL) was harvested from 6 horses.


Arteries were exposed to endothelial growth media (EGM) + horse serum (HS) for first sprout (FS), vascular regression (VR), and (basement membrane matrix [Matrigel]) lysis (ML) evaluation. Additional rings supplemented with (1) EGM, (2) EGM + EDTA, (3) endothelial basal media (EBM), (4) EBM + HS, or (5) EBM + human VEGF were compared for vascular network area (VNA) and maximum network growth (MNG). Additional rings exposed to EGM + ePL at 10-(10xePL), 5-(5xePL), or 2-fold (2xePL) increases from baseline platelet concentration, EGM + HS, EGM + platelet-poor plasma (PPP), EBM + PPP and EBM were analyzed for branch number, density, VNA, and VEGF-A concentration from days 0–3.


Arteries demonstrated sprouting in Matrigel supplemented with EBM alone. EGM + HS exposure resulted in no differences in FS (P = .3934), VR (P = .0607), or ML (P = .2364) between horses. VNA in EGM + HS was greater than EBM (P = .0015). MNG was greater in EGM + HS, EBM + HS, and EBM + hVEGF compared with EBM (P = .0001). ePL treatment did not have an overall significant angiogenic effect compared with supplementation with HS, PPP, or EBM alone; however, VEGF-A concentrations were higher for EGM + 10xePL, EGM + 5xePL, and EGM-HS compared with EBM and positively correlated with VNA (P = .0243).


Equine arterial rings serve as an ex vivo model for angiogenesis but have a high degree of variability. HS, PPP, or ePL support vascular growth, and HS and ePL may stimulate the secretion and be sources of VEGF-A.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Rabies is the deadliest viral infection known, with no reliable treatment, and although it is entirely preventable, rabies continues to kill more than 60,000 people every year, mostly children in countries where dog rabies is endemic. America is only 1 generation away from the time when rabies killed more than 10,000 animals and 50 Americans every year, but 3 to 5 Americans continue to die annually from rabies. Distressingly, > 50,000 Americans undergo rabies prevention therapy every year after exposure to potentially rabid animals. While enormous progress has been made, more must be done to defeat this ancient but persistent, fatal zoonosis.

In the US, lack of public awareness and ambivalence are the greatest dangers imposed by rabies, resulting in unnecessary exposures, anxiety, and risk. Veterinarians have a special role in informing and reassuring the public about prevention and protection from rabies. This summary of current facts and future advances about rabies will assist veterinarians in informing their clients about the disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association