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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rate of complications associated with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and examine whether cat characteristics or surgeon experience level were associated with complications.

ANIMALS

15,927 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018.

PROCEDURES

Data were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Complications were coded by a veterinarian blinded to surgeon experience level. Complications (pedicle drop or tear, pedicle hemorrhage, and pedicle-related death) were summarized as counts and percentages. Univariate associations between cat characteristics (eg, age, weight, reproductive status, and ownership) and surgeon experience level (clinic veterinarian vs training veterinarian or veterinary student) and each outcome were estimated separately for veterinarian and student training clinics.

RESULTS

A pedicle drop or tear occurred in 0.3% (n = 49) of cats and was significantly more likely among veterinary students. Most (41/49 [84%]) pedicle drops and tears did not result in hemorrhage. Only 19 of 15,927 (0.12%) cats had pedicle-related hemorrhage, and in all instances, hemorrhage was corrected intraoperatively without serious complication or death. Cat characteristics and surgeon experience level were not related to pedicle hemorrhage.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results support previous evidence that the ovarian pedicle tie procedure is safe in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy when performed by experienced surgeons or novice surgeons under supervision. Given the reduced anesthetic time associated with the procedure, the ovarian pedicle tie should be considered an acceptable standard practice in all practice settings.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat model of acute portal hypertension and compare values with a control group and a sham surgical group.

Animals—30 rats; 10 controls (group 1), 10 sham surgical (group 2), and 10 rats with surgically induced acute portal hypertension (group 3).

Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia, catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery, jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats. Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and vascular pressure measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed, resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement. After catheter placement, all variables were remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.

Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal hypertension in this experimental model results in increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and portal circulation. On the basis of information in the rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening portal hypertension develops. Increased NO concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1173–1177)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Investigate long-term complications, survival times, general health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes, and longevity in female dogs and cats (bitches and queens, respectively) following hospital discharge after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) for pyometra.

ANIMALS

306 pet-owner–completed surveys and corresponding medical records for 234 bitches and 72 queens treated with OHE for pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

PROCEDURES

A telephone and online survey was conducted to gather data about pet owners’ perception of pet health and QoL following OHE for pyometra, and potential associations between survey results and medical record data were evaluated. Median survival time at a given age at OHE for pyometra was calculated with the use of maximum likelihood estimation of a survival-time regression model.

RESULTS

72 of the 121 (60%) eligible owners of queens and 234 of the 390 (60%) eligible owners of bitches completed the survey. Most owners reported that at the time of the survey, their pet’s health and QoL were better or the same as before pyometra. Reported health and QoL outcomes were similar for pets > 8 versus ≤ 8 years of age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that bitches and queens undergoing OHE for pyometra at older ages and without other severe health issues can expect to live their full life span. Veterinarians in private practice could expect similar outcomes.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs.

Sample Population—48 client-owned dogs with mild to moderate lameness.

Procedure—The dogs were from 3 studies conducted during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in principal component analysis, and 44 were used in model selection procedures and validity testing. A test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted on dogs with a change of < 10% in vertical peak force. A force platform was used as the criterion-referenced standard for detecting lameness. Principal component analysis was used to describe dimensionality of the data. Repeatable questions were used as explanatory variables in multiple regression models to predict force plate measurements. Peak vertical, craniocaudal, and associated impulses were the forces used to quantify lameness. The regression models were used to test the criterion validity of the questionnaire.

Results—19 of 39 questions were found to be repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that were considered valid representations of the forces measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as the full model.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VAS questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1634–1643)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe findings, determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge, and identify prognostic indicators of poor outcomes for female cats (queens) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.

ANIMALS

134 queens with pyometra diagnosed between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

PROCEDURES

The medical records were retrospectively searched and data including patient history, clinical signs, blood work results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospitalization, and uterine rupture) were collected from medical records. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of outcomes.

RESULTS

Dehydration (69% [83/121]) and absolute neutrophilia (83% [52/63]) were commonly reported. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 100% (126/126; 95% CI, 97% to 100%) for queens treated with OHE; 33% (41/126) were hospitalized ≥ 2 nights, and 4% (5/120) had uterine rupture. Queens with abnormal serum ionized calcium concentration or signs of depressed mentation had greater odds (OR of 4.64 and 2.26, respectively) of ≥ 2 nights’ hospitalization. Queens with high rectal temperature, closed pyometra, or heart murmur had greater odds (OR of 35.66, 17.37, or 16.06, respectively) of uterine rupture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that OHE for pyometra in queens was highly successful even when performed in a nonspecialty hospital with high-quality basic supportive care, and we believe most general practitioners who offer OHE could expect to see similar outcomes. With more general-practice veterinarians comfortable treating pyometra in their clinics, OHE for pyometra will be available to more pets, ultimately saving more lives.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge and identify indicators associated with poor outcomes among female dogs (bitches) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.

ANIMALS

405 bitches diagnosed with pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital from January 1, 2017, to February 8, 2019.

PROCEDURES

For this retrospective study, medical records were searched and data collected including patient history, clinical signs, serum biochemical analyses results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospital stay, and uterine rupture). Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations and identify potential predictive variables.

RESULTS

The rate of survival to hospital discharge for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE was 97% (394/405); 44% (174/394) stayed in the hospital ≥ 2 nights, and 3% (11/390) had a ruptured uterus. Bitches with a high BUN concentration or heart murmur had greater odds of death after OHE; however, the model had low predictive power. Those with uterine rupture, inappetence, high concentrations of BUN or serum creatinine, low PCV, or dehydration had greater odds of hospitalization ≥ 2 nights. There were no significant predictors of uterine rupture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The rate of survival to hospital discharge was high for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE in a nonspecialized setting; therefore, general practitioners could expect similar outcomes. With this important procedure widely available in general practices, more pets can receive treatment for this life-threatening disease.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association