To determine the rate of complications associated with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and examine whether cat characteristics or surgeon experience level were associated with complications.
15,927 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018.
Data were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Complications were coded by a veterinarian blinded to surgeon experience level. Complications (pedicle drop or tear, pedicle hemorrhage, and pedicle-related death) were summarized as counts and percentages. Univariate associations between cat characteristics (eg, age, weight, reproductive status, and ownership) and surgeon experience level (clinic veterinarian vs training veterinarian or veterinary student) and each outcome were estimated separately for veterinarian and student training clinics.
A pedicle drop or tear occurred in 0.3% (n = 49) of cats and was significantly more likely among veterinary students. Most (41/49 [84%]) pedicle drops and tears did not result in hemorrhage. Only 19 of 15,927 (0.12%) cats had pedicle-related hemorrhage, and in all instances, hemorrhage was corrected intraoperatively without serious complication or death. Cat characteristics and surgeon experience level were not related to pedicle hemorrhage.
Results support previous evidence that the ovarian pedicle tie procedure is safe in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy when performed by experienced surgeons or novice surgeons under supervision. Given the reduced anesthetic time associated with the procedure, the ovarian pedicle tie should be considered an acceptable standard practice in all practice settings.
Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations
in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat
model of acute portal hypertension and compare values
with a control group and a sham surgical group.
Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia,
catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery,
jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in
the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats.
Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature,
and vascular pressure measurements were
obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for
baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal
hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying
a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and
a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed,
resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement.
After catheter placement, all variables were
remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.
Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater
in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal
hypertension in this experimental model results in
increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and
portal circulation. On the basis of information in the
rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations
may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of
congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening
portal hypertension develops. Increased NO
concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome
that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res
Investigate long-term complications, survival times, general health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes, and longevity in female dogs and cats (bitches and queens, respectively) following hospital discharge after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) for pyometra.
306 pet-owner–completed surveys and corresponding medical records for 234 bitches and 72 queens treated with OHE for pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.
A telephone and online survey was conducted to gather data about pet owners’ perception of pet health and QoL following OHE for pyometra, and potential associations between survey results and medical record data were evaluated. Median survival time at a given age at OHE for pyometra was calculated with the use of maximum likelihood estimation of a survival-time regression model.
72 of the 121 (60%) eligible owners of queens and 234 of the 390 (60%) eligible owners of bitches completed the survey. Most owners reported that at the time of the survey, their pet’s health and QoL were better or the same as before pyometra. Reported health and QoL outcomes were similar for pets > 8 versus ≤ 8 years of age.
Our findings indicated that bitches and queens undergoing OHE for pyometra at older ages and without other severe health issues can expect to live their full life span. Veterinarians in private practice could expect similar outcomes.
Objective—To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS)
questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in
assessing pain and lameness in dogs.
Sample Population—48 client-owned dogs with
mild to moderate lameness.
Procedure—The dogs were from 3 studies conducted
during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were
used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in
principal component analysis, and 44 were used in
model selection procedures and validity testing. A
test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted
on dogs with a change of < 10% in vertical peak force.
A force platform was used as the criterion-referenced
standard for detecting lameness. Principal component
analysis was used to describe dimensionality of
the data. Repeatable questions were used as
explanatory variables in multiple regression models to
predict force plate measurements. Peak vertical, craniocaudal,
and associated impulses were the forces
used to quantify lameness. The regression models
were used to test the criterion validity of the questionnaire.
Results—19 of 39 questions were found to be
repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation
cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures
resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that
were considered valid representations of the forces
measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion
peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as
the full model.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VAS
questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in
assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness
in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1634–1643)
To describe findings, determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge, and identify prognostic indicators of poor outcomes for female cats (queens) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.
134 queens with pyometra diagnosed between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.
The medical records were retrospectively searched and data including patient history, clinical signs, blood work results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospitalization, and uterine rupture) were collected from medical records. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of outcomes.
Dehydration (69% [83/121]) and absolute neutrophilia (83% [52/63]) were commonly reported. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 100% (126/126; 95% CI, 97% to 100%) for queens treated with OHE; 33% (41/126) were hospitalized ≥ 2 nights, and 4% (5/120) had uterine rupture. Queens with abnormal serum ionized calcium concentration or signs of depressed mentation had greater odds (OR of 4.64 and 2.26, respectively) of ≥ 2 nights’ hospitalization. Queens with high rectal temperature, closed pyometra, or heart murmur had greater odds (OR of 35.66, 17.37, or 16.06, respectively) of uterine rupture.
Our findings indicated that OHE for pyometra in queens was highly successful even when performed in a nonspecialty hospital with high-quality basic supportive care, and we believe most general practitioners who offer OHE could expect to see similar outcomes. With more general-practice veterinarians comfortable treating pyometra in their clinics, OHE for pyometra will be available to more pets, ultimately saving more lives.
To determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge and identify indicators associated with poor outcomes among female dogs (bitches) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.
405 bitches diagnosed with pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital from January 1, 2017, to February 8, 2019.
For this retrospective study, medical records were searched and data collected including patient history, clinical signs, serum biochemical analyses results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospital stay, and uterine rupture). Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations and identify potential predictive variables.
The rate of survival to hospital discharge for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE was 97% (394/405); 44% (174/394) stayed in the hospital ≥ 2 nights, and 3% (11/390) had a ruptured uterus. Bitches with a high BUN concentration or heart murmur had greater odds of death after OHE; however, the model had low predictive power. Those with uterine rupture, inappetence, high concentrations of BUN or serum creatinine, low PCV, or dehydration had greater odds of hospitalization ≥ 2 nights. There were no significant predictors of uterine rupture.
The rate of survival to hospital discharge was high for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE in a nonspecialized setting; therefore, general practitioners could expect similar outcomes. With this important procedure widely available in general practices, more pets can receive treatment for this life-threatening disease.