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SUMMARY

The effects of method of seminal collection and a diuretic on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of rams were examined. In experiment 1, semen and urine were collected from 8 rams during the non-breeding season. Prior to seminal collection, all rams were given furosemide and a sample of urine was obtained during micturition. Semen was then collected from each ram with an artificial vagina or by electroejaculation in alternate weeks for 4 weeks, and the urine released during the first postseminal collection micturition was collected in 4 consecutive samples. The volume of electroejaculates was larger (P < 0.0001) than the volume of ejaculates, but the total number of spermatozoa in the electroejaculate or in the ejaculate were not different (P > 0.1). Urine obtained before seminal collection was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (mean ± sd = 0.053 ± 0.114 × 106/ml). The adjusted spermatozoal concentration (mean ± sd = 1.630 ± 2.258 × 106/ml) in the urine collected after seminal collection was 31 times higher (P < 0.0001) and there were motile spermatozoa in most (97%) of the samples. The spermatozoal concentration in sequential samples of urine was not different (P > 0.1) between samples and was not affected (P > 0.1) by the method of seminal collection. There was a trend, approaching significance (P = 0.052), for an effect of method of seminal collection on the percentage of retrograde flow. Retrograde flow ranged from 0.21 to 19.38% when semen was collected with an artificial vagina and from 0.03 to 94.60% when semen was collected by electroejaculation and varied (P = 0.02) among rams within the 2 methods of seminal collection. In experiment 2, the 8 rams used in experiment 1 were given injections of 0.9% physiologic saline solution or furosemide in alternate weeks prior to seminal collection with an artificial vagina. Furosemide increased (P = 0.009) the volume of urine voided during the first postejaculation micturition, but did not influence (P > 0.1) the time from exposure of rams to the teaser to ejaculation, seminal characteristics, number of spermatozoa in the urine, or the percentage of retrograde flow. There was a trend (P < 0.1) for more rams to have motile spermatozoa in the postejaculation urine after treatment with furosemide. Administration of furosemide prior to seminal collection facilitates the noninvasive collection of pre- and postejaculation samples of urine for the determination of retrograde flow.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effect of methoxamine on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of domestic cats during electroejaculation and the incidence of retrograde flow during the collection of semen with an artificial vagina, or during mating was examined. In experiment 1, urine collected by cystocentesis prior to electroejaculation was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa, whereas urine collected after electroejaculation contained more (P = 0.002) spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in urine obtained from 6 of 8 cats. Administration of methoxamine hydrochloride (200 μg/kg of body weight, iv) did not affect spermatozoal output or percentage of retrograde flow. Percentage of retrograde flow for control cats ranged from 61.18 to 92.95% (mean ± sd, 80.00 ± 14.28%) and for methoxamine-treated cats, ranged from 15.25 to 92.49% (mean ± sd, 58.10 ± 32.28%), but the difference was not significant.

In experiment 2, an artificial vagina was used to collect semen from 5 of the 8 cats used in experiment 1. Urine collected by cystocentesis after ejaculation contained spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in the urine from 4 of 5 cats. The mean (± sd) percentage of retrograde flow for these 5 cats was 46.82 ± 31.67% (range, 14.56 to 90.32%).

In experiment 3, each of the 5 cats that were used in experiments 1 and 2 were mated. Spermatozoa were recovered from the vagina of each mated female, and motile spermatozoa were also present in postejaculation urine obtained by cystocentesis from each of the 5 male cats. Mean total number of spermatozoa in the postmating urine was 29.42 ± 33.58 × 106 (range, 0.22 × 106 to 76.05 × 106 spermatozoa).

Anesthesia of cats with ketamine facilitated the obtention of urine by cystocentesis, but did not cause spermatozoal displacement into the urinary bladder. Results of this study confirm the fact that, in cats, appreciable numbers of spermatozoa are lost because of retrograde flow into the urinary bladder during electroejaculation. Recovery of spermatozoa from the urinary bladder after collection of semen with an artificial vagina or following natural mating, indicates that retrograde flow of spermatozoa is not an artifact derived from electrical stimulation, but is a component of the ejaculatory process in cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine was examined. In experiment 1, the mean (± SD) spermatozoal concentration in urine collected by cystocentesis before ejaculation was 0.322 ± 0.645 × 106/ml. After ejaculation, motile spermatozoa were present in the urine collected by cystocentesis from 12 of 15 dogs, and the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine (5.139 ± 7.014 × 106/ml) was higher (P < 0.025) than the concentration in the urine collected before ejaculation. The percentage of the total number of spermatozoa that were displaced during ejaculation and flowed into the urinary bladder (retrograde flow) ranged from 0 to 99.75% (24.67 ± 33.98%).

In experiments 2 and 3, administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs induced retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder. In experiment 2, all dogs had spermatozoa in urine collected after xylazine administration, with motile spermatozoa present in the urine from 9 of 10 dogs. In experiment 3, urine collected from dogs before administration of xylazine was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (0.063 ± 0.135 × 106/ml), whereas urine collected after administration of xylazine had more (P < 0.025) and motile spermatozoa (3.717 ± 4.273 × 106/ml).

In experiment 4, administration of xylazine to dogs after ejaculation did not increase the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine. Results indicate that spermatozoa flow into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research