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  • Author or Editor: Luis G. Arroyo x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe histologic findings in the small airways during postmortem examination of actively racing horses and to quantify the degree of airway inflammation by use of a semiquantitative scoring system.

SAMPLE Lung tissues obtained from 95 horses (Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, and Quarter Horses) that had been actively racing or training.

PROCEDURES 10 standardized lung sections were obtained during postmortem examination of 37 horses that had been actively racing or training, and 2 histologic sections of the caudodorsal lung lobes previously collected from each of 58 horses that died or were euthanized during racing or training were also obtained. Sections were evaluated by use of a validated histologic small airway scoring system.

RESULTS Scores for inflammatory cells, smooth muscle, and hemosiderin typically were high. Signalment and cause of death were not significant predictors of lung scores. Lung sample location was a significant predictor, with the highest scores in the caudal and dorsal sections. Inflammatory cell infiltration in peribronchiolar tissues, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and hemosiderin (prevalence of 86%, 98%, and 80%, respectively) were common findings in lungs of these horses, with the caudodorsal regions more severely affected. Correlation was moderate between smooth muscle hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infltration, with minimal correlation between hemosiderin and inflammatory cell infiltration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Inflammatory airway disease has been identified by use of bronchoalveolar lavage in young athletic horses throughout the world. In the study reported here, pathological changes were detected in the wall of small airways of horses that were actively training or racing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on healing of wounds in the distal portion of the forelimb in horses.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—Five 6.25-cm2 superficial wounds were created over both third metacarpi of 6 horses. Forelimbs were randomly assigned to treatment (ESWT and bandage) or control (bandage only) groups. In treated limbs, each wound was treated with 625 shock wave pulses from an unfocused electrohydraulic shock wave generator. In control limbs, each wound received sham treatment. Wound appearance was recorded weekly as inflamed or healthy and scored for the amount of protruding granulation tissue. Standardized digital photographs were used to determine the area of neoepithelialization and absolute wound area. Biopsy was performed on 1 wound on each limb every week for 6 weeks to evaluate epithelialization, fibroplasia, neovascularization, and inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining for A smooth muscle actin was used to label myofibroblasts.

Results—Control wounds were 1.9 times as likely to appear inflamed, compared with treated wounds. Control wounds had significantly higher scores for exuberant granulation tissue. Treatment did not affect wound size or area of neoepithelialization. No significant difference was found for any of the histologic or immunohistochemical variables between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with ESWT did not accelerate healing of equine distal limb wounds, but treated wounds had less exuberant granulation tissue and appeared healthier than controls. Therefore, ESWT may be useful to prevent exuberant granulation tissue formation and chronic inflammation of such wounds, but further studies are necessary before recommending ESWT for clinical application.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—4 racehorses were examined because of markedly abnormal behavior following administration of fluphenazine decanoate.

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included restlessness, agitation, profuse sweating, hypermetria, aimless circling, intense pawing and striking with the thoracic limbs, and rhythmic swinging of the head and neck alternating with episodes of severe stupor. Fluphenazine was detected in serum or plasma from all 4 horses. The dose of fluphenazine decanoate administered to 3 of the 4 horses was within the range (25 to 50 mg) routinely administered to adult humans.

Treatment and Outcome—In 2 horses, there was no response to IV administration of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but the abnormal behavior in these 2 horses appeared to resolve following administration of benztropine mesylate, and both horses returned to racing. The other 2 horses responded to diphenhydramine administration. One returned to racing. The other was euthanized because of severe neurologic signs, respiratory failure, and acute renal failure.

Clinical Relevance—Findings indicate that adverse extrapyramidal effects may occur in horses given fluphenazine decanoate. These effects appear to be unpredictable and may be severe and life threatening. Use of fluphenazine decanoate as an anxiolytic in performance horses is not permitted in many racing and horse show jurisdictions, and analytic procedures are now available to detect the presence of fluphenazine in serum or plasma.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association