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Objective—To determine whether proinflammatory mediators and glucocorticoids affect CD62L(L-selectin) expression on peripheral blood neutrophils from cows in various stages of lactation.
Animals—100 healthy dairy cows during early (13.1 ± 0.79 days after parturition; n = 31), peak (58.7 ± 1.64 days after parturition; 31), and mid (137.2 ± 2.59 days after parturition; 38) lactation.
Procedure—In vitro effects of relevant proinflammatory mediators that are released in response to mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), tumor necrosis factor-α, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on CD62L expression on bovine neutrophils were assessed by flow cytometry. Influences of cortisol and dexamethasone on CD62L expression on bovine neutrophils were also investigated.
Results—Basal CD62L expression on neutrophils from cows during early, peak, and mid lactation were similar. Lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-α had no effect on CD62L expression on neutrophils from cows at any stage of lactation. Conversely, PAF elicited a time- and dose-dependent, down regulatory effect on CD62L expression. However, no differential shedding of CD62L from neutrophils of cows at any stage of lactation were detected. In addition, no effects on CD62L expression on bovine neutrophils after whole blood incubation with cortisol or dexamethasone were observed. Incubation with glucocorticoids did not prevent the down regulatory effect of PAF on CD62L expression.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Comparable basal CD62L expression on bovine neutrophils and equal amounts of CD62L shedding from bovine neutrophils during all stages of lactation suggest that variations in CD62L density are not a likely cause of susceptibility of cows to coliform-induced mastitis during early lactation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;225:1421–1426)
Objective—To examine mRNA expression of cytokines in synovial fluid (SF) cells from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and medial patellar luxation (MPL) and determine mRNA expression for 3 joints (affected stifle, unaffected contralateral stifle, and left shoulder joints) in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.
Sample Population—29 stifle joints with CrCL rupture (29 dogs), 8 stifle joints with MPL (7 dogs), and 24 normal stifle joints (16 clinically normal dogs).
Procedures—Immediately before reconstructive surgery, SF was aspirated from the cruciate-deficient stifle joint or stifle joint with MPL. Fourteen of 29 dogs had unilateral CrCL rupture; SF was also aspirated from the unaffected contralateral stifle joint and left shoulder joint. Those 14 dogs were examined 6 and 12 months after reconstructive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from SF cells and reverse transcription–PCR assay was performed to obtain cDNA. Canine-specific cytokine mRNA expression was determined by use of a real-time PCR assay.
Results—Interleukin (IL)-8 and -10 and interferon-G expression differed significantly between dogs with arthropathies and dogs with normal stifle joints. For the 14 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture, a significant difference was found for IL-8 expression. Before reconstructive surgery, IL-8 expression differed significantly between the affected stifle joint and left shoulder joint or contralateral stifle joint. Six months after surgery, IL-8 expression was significantly increased in the unaffected contralateral stifle joint, compared with the shoulder joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No conclusions can be made regarding the role of the examined cytokines in initiation of CrCL disease.
Objective—To evaluate L-selectin (CD62L) and Mac-1 (CD11b) expression at the surface of blood and milk neutrophils during the early inflammatory response to Escherichia coli-induced mastitis in cows.
Animals—6 healthy Holstein heifers in early lactation.
Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected before and after intramammary administration of 104 CFU's of E coli in the left mammary gland quarters. Bacterial counts and electrolyte concentrations in milk, rectal temperature, differential blood leukocyte counts, milk somatic cell counts, neutrophil viability, and the expression of CD62L and CD11b on blood and milk neutrophils were determined longitudinally.
Results—Bacteria grew during the first 6 hours after inoculation with a pronounced leukocytic influx. Coincident with neutrophil influx was an increase in CD62L+ and CD11b+ milk neutrophils, as well as an improved viability of milk neutrophils. The peak of the inflammatory reaction was reached approximately 12 hours after E coli inoculation. From that time forward, changes in CD62L and CD11b expression were opposed to each other, with a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression on blood and milk neutrophils; the magnitude of the differences in CD62L and CD11b expression between blood and milk neutrophils decreased. Percentages of CD62L+ and CD11b+ milk neutrophils increased to percentages that were similar to blood neutrophils (ie, approx 92%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The presence of adhesion molecules on a large percentage of milk neutrophils during the acute inflammatory response, together with the changes in receptor density, suggest a major role for CD62L and CD11b in neutrophil function during coliform mastitis. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1164–1171)
Objective—To compare clinical usefulness of ultrasonography versus radiography for detection of fragmentation of the dorsal aspect of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in horses.
Animals—36 horses with fragmentation of the MCP (n = 19) and MTP (29) joints.
Procedures—In all joints, radiography (4 standard projections) and ultrasonography were performed prior to arthroscopic examination and fragment removal. Number and location of fragments identified radiographically and ultrasonographically were compared with arthroscopic findings.
Results—Radiographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to both number and location of fragments in 21 of the 48 (44%) joints. Ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to number and location of fragments for 46 of the 48 (96%) joints. In the remaining 2 joints, arthroscopy revealed additional fragments that were not identified ultrasonographically. When ultrasonographic findings were compared with radiographic findings, more fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 3 joints and fewer fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 1 joint. Ultrasonographic findings also confirmed the absence (4 joints) or presence (3 joints) of fragmentation at the dorsoproximal aspect of the joint that had been suspected on the basis of radiographic findings. Ultrasonography was also able to determine the location of the fragments in the joints where this was not possible radiographically.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that ultrasonography was a useful method for determining the number and location of fragments in horses with dorsal fragmentation of the MCP or MTP joint.
Objective—To determine radiographic vertebral ratio values representing vertebral canal stenosis in Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CCSM).
Animals—Doberman Pinschers with (n = 81) and without (39) signs of CCSM.
Procedures—All dogs underwent lateral survey radiography of the cervical vertebral column. Five specific measurements were made at C3 through C7, and from those data, 3 ratios were calculated and analyzed for use in diagnosis of CSSM: canal height-to-vertebral body height ratio (CBHR), canal height-to-vertebral body length ratio (CBLR), and caudal vertebral canal height-to-cranial vertebral canal height ratio (CCHR). The CBHR and CBLR were considered indicators of vertebral canal stenosis, and CCHR described vertebral canal shape.
Results—Compared with Doberman Pinschers without CCSM, mean CBHR and CBLR values were significantly smaller for Doberman Pinschers with CCSM; for CBHR, this difference was evident at each assessed vertebra. The CCHR value for C7 was significantly larger in dogs with CCSM. Receiver operating characteristic statistics did not identify a threshold point that had combined high sensitivity and specificity sufficient to differentiate between Doberman Pinschers with and without CCSM.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doberman Pinschers with CCSM had vertebral canal stenosis combined with a funnel-shaped vertebral canal at C7 significantly more often than did Doberman Pinschers without CCSM. Despite these significant differences, no reliable threshold ratio values were identified to differentiate groups of dogs.
Objective—To determine murmur prevalence by auscultation of 105 apparently healthy Whippets without signs of cardiac disease, to determine the origin of these murmurs, and to evaluate the influence of sex, type of pedigree (ie, bred for showing or racing), and training on these murmurs.
Animals—105 client-owned Whippets.
Procedures—All dogs were auscultated by the first author and underwent a complete physical and cardiological examination, together with a hematologic assessment. Several RBC variables and echocardiographic variables were compared between dogs with or without a murmur at the level of the aortic valve.
Results—44 of 105 (41.9%) dogs had no murmur. A soft systolic murmur was present with point of maximal intensity at the level of the aortic valve in 50 (47.6%) dogs, at the level of the pulmonic valve in 8 (7.6%) dogs, and at the level of the mitral valve in 3 (2.9%) dogs. No significant differences were found in heart rate, rhythm, murmur presence, point of maximal intensity, and murmur grade between males and females, between dogs with race- and show-type pedigrees, or between dogs in training and not in training. Dogs with a murmur at the level of the aortic valve had a significantly higher aortic and pulmonic blood flow velocity and cardiac output, compared with dogs without a murmur.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Whippets have a high prevalence of soft systolic murmurs in the absence of any structural abnormalities, which fit the description of innocent murmurs. No influence of sex, pedigree type, or training was found on the occurrence of these murmurs in Whippets.
Objective—To determine intraobserver, interobserver, and intermethod agreement for results of myelography, computed tomography-myelography (CTM), and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs with disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS).
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—22 dogs with DAWS.
Procedures—All dogs underwent myelography, CTM, and low-field MRI. Each imaging study was interpreted twice by 4 observers who were blinded to signalment and clinical information of the patients. The following variables were assessed by all 3 techniques: number, site, and direction of spinal cord compressions; narrowed intervertebral disk spaces; vertebral body abnormalities; spondylosis deformans; and abnormal articular facets. Intervertebral foraminal stenosis was assessed on CTM and MRI images. Intraobserver, interobserver, and intermethod agreement were calculated by κ and weighted κ statistics.
Results—There was very good to good intraobserver agreement for most variables assessed by myelography and only moderate intraobserver agreement for most variables assessed by CTM and low-field MRI. There was moderate to fair interobserver and intermethod agreement for most variables assessed by the 3 diagnostic techniques. There was very good or good intraobserver, interobserver, or intermethod agreement for the site and direction of the worst spinal cord compression as assessed by all the imaging modalities; abnormal articular facets and intervertebral foraminal stenosis were the least reliably assessed variables, with poor interobserver agreement regardless of imaging modality used.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was considerable variation in image interpretation among observers and between use of various imaging modalities; these imaging techniques should be considered complementary in assessment of dogs with DAWS.
Objective—To determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vertebral ratio values representing vertebral canal height, vertebral canal shape, and vertebral body shape in Doberman Pinschers with and without disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (DACSM) and clinically normal English Foxhounds.
Animals—Doberman Pinschers with (n = 18) and without (20) DACSM and clinically normal English Foxhounds (18).
Procedures—All dogs underwent low-field MRI of the cervical vertebral column. From 5 specific measurements made at C3 through C7, 4 linear vertebral ratios were calculated and assessed for correlation: vertebral canal height-to-body height ratio (CBHR), vertebral canal height-to-body length ratio (CBLR), caudal canal height-to-cranial canal height ratio (CCHR), and vertebral body length-to-height ratio (BLHR). The CBHR and CBLR described vertebral canal height, CCHR described vertebral canal shape, and BLHR described vertebral body shape. A midvertebral canal-occupying ratio (mVCOR) for the spinal cord was calculated at C5.
Results—Compared with both groups of unaffected dogs, CBHR, CBLR, and BLHR for Doberman Pinschers with DACSM were significantly smaller. The C7 CCHR was significantly larger in DACSM-affected Doberman Pinschers, compared with clinically normal English Foxhounds. Ratios did not differ significantly between unaffected Doberman Pinschers and clinically normal English Foxhounds. Correlation coefficients between CBHR, CBLR, and mVCOR were low and not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doberman Pinschers with DACSM had significantly smaller vertebral canal heights and more square-shaped vertebral bodies, compared with unaffected Doberman Pinschers, combined with a funnel-shaped vertebral canal at C7. Breed-specific differences were not evident. Linear MRI vertebral canal-to-body ratios do not appear to predict relative vertebral canal stenosis.
Objective—To evaluate the evolution of clinical signs and their correlation with results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and to assess potential prognostic variables after conservative medical treatment for disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (DA-CSM) in dogs.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—21 client-owned dogs with DA-CSM.
Procedures—After neurologic grading, dogs underwent low-field MRI and TMS with measurement of onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes from the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial muscles. Dimensions calculated from MRI images were remaining spinal cord area, spinal cord compression ratio, vertebral occupying ratio, vertebral canal height-to-body height ratio, vertebral canal height-to-body length ratio, and vertebral canal compromise ratio. Intraparenchymal signal intensity changes were graded. Dogs were reevaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after initial diagnosis.
Results—Outcome was successful in 8 of 21 dogs. Negative outcomes were characterized by rapid progression of clinical signs. All dogs with more severe clinical signs of DA-CSM 1 month after diagnosis had unsuccessful outcomes. Outcome was associated with the remaining spinal cord area and vertebral canal compromise ratio. Prognosis was not associated with severity of clinical signs or results of TMS. There were no significant correlations among clinical signs, MRI findings, and TMS results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Conservative medical treatment of DA-CSM was associated with a guarded prognosis. Selected MRI variables and clinical evolution 1 month after diagnosis can be considered prognostic indicators. The lack of correlation among clinical signs, results of diagnostic imaging, and results of electrophysiologic evaluation in dogs with DA-CSM warrants further investigation.
Objective—To investigate the physiologic endocrine effects of food intake and food withholding via measurement of the circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), insulin–like growth factor-I (IGF-I), glucose, and insulin when food was administered at the usual time, after 1 day's withholding, after 3 days' withholding and after refeeding the next day in healthy Beagles.
Animals—9 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from 8:30 AM to 5 PM from Beagles when food was administered as usual at 10 AM, after 1 day's withholding, after 3 days' withholding, and after refeeding at 10 AM the next day.
Results—Overall mean plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower when food was administered than after food withholding. Overall mean plasma GH and IGF-I concentrations did not differ significantly among the 4 periods. Circulating overall mean glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher after refeeding, compared with the 3 other periods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, food withholding and food intake were associated with higher and lower circulating ghrelin concentrations, respectively, suggesting that, in dogs, ghrelin participates in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations were not associated with similar changes in plasma GH concentrations, whereas insulin and glucose concentrations appeared to change reciprocally with the ghrelin concentrations.