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Abstract

Case Description—2 dogs were evaluated because of vomiting and lethargy (a Toy Poodle; dog 1) and acute respiratory distress, vomiting, and anorexia (a Chihuahua; dog 2). Dog 1 had been exposed to a commercial hydrocarbon waterproofing spray 24 hours before the development of clinical signs, and dog 2 was examined 18 hours after exposure to a waterproofing spray containing heptane, a highly flammable liquid hydrocarbon.

Clinical Findings—In both dogs, major gastrointestinal tract abnormalities were ruled out but respiratory status worsened. Thoracic radiography revealed a diffuse interstitial pulmonary pattern, and hypoxemia was detected.

Treatment and Outcome—Hospitalization for monitoring and care was required for both dogs. The dogs recovered with supportive care, which included administration of oxygen, fluids, and bronchodilators. Additionally, dog 1 received glucocorticoids via inhalation and supplemental enteral nutrition, whereas dog 2 was treated with an antimicrobial.

Clinical Relevance—The dogs of this report developed hydrocarbon pneumonitis following exposure to waterproofing sprays. Such sprays contain potentially toxic hydrocarbons. The severity of the adverse effects associated with exposure may have been amplified because the dogs were physically small and were exposed to a relatively large amount of aerosolized spray within small areas. Development of chemical pneumonitis in pet animals is best prevented by application of waterproofing sprays in well-ventilated or outdoor areas from which pets have been excluded. With prolonged hospitalization and considerable monitoring and care, affected dogs can recover from these exposures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of dogs and cats with generalized peritonitis treated by means of closed-suction drainage.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—30 dogs and 10 cats with generalized peritonitis.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, clinicopathologic abnormalities, contamination source, results of microbial culture, surgical procedure performed, postoperative management, complications, and outcome was obtained.

Results—The gastrointestinal tract was the most common source of contamination. Abdominal fluid collected from 34 patients at the time of surgery was submitted for bacterial culture; results were positive for 28 (82%). The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli. Postoperative complications included anemia (n = 21), hypoproteinemia (21), vomiting (9), edema (7), and diarrhea (5). Total solids concentration did not decrease during the first 48 hours after surgery, and all drains remained functional until removal. Twenty-eight patients survived to the time of discharge; 8 of the 12 animals that died did so within 18 hours after surgery. The only factor significantly different between patients that survived and patients that died was postoperative systolic blood pressure. Factors that were not significantly associated with outcome included detection of bacteria in the abdominal fluid, number of organisms cultured from the abdominal fluid, selection of antimicrobials for empiric treatment, and source of contamination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that closed-suction drainage may be a useful method for treating generalized peritonitis in dogs and cats. No clinically important complications were associated with their use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:789–794)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes associated with surgical placement of gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes in dogs with naturally occurring disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedures—Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were evaluated. Daily postoperative abdominal radiographic examinations were performed to determine the presence of the following mechanical tube complications: kinking, coiling, knotting, and migration. Tube stoma abnormalities (erythema, cellulitis, and discharge) were observed daily and recorded by use of a standardized visual analog grading scale. Additionally, presence of complications was compared with median survival times.

Results—The most common indication for gastrojejunostomy tube placement was gastrointestinal disease (n = 11), with confirmed septic peritonitis in 8 of 11 dogs. Other indications for gastrojejunostomy tube placement included extrahepatic biliary surgery (n = 6) and pancreatic disease (9). Mean ± SD surgical time required for tube placement was 26 ± 14 minutes. Overall, mechanical tube complication rate was 46% (12/26), including coiling (7), migration (4), and kinking (2). Overall minor tube stoma complication rate was 77% (20/26) and included erythema (16), cellulitis (13), and discharge (17). Dislodgement or self-induced tube trauma resulted in accidental tube removal in 2 of 26 dogs, and inadvertent tube damage necessitated premature removal by the clinician in 1 of 26 dogs. Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 39 days with 13 of 26 dogs still alive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrojejunostomy tube placement affords flexibility in the postoperative nutritional regimen by allowing for postgastric feeding with simultaneous access to the stomach.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate pituitary-adrenal function in a population of critically ill dogs by measuring serial plasma concentrations of basal cortisol, ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and endogenous ACTH.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 critically ill dogs admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU).

Procedure—Basal plasma cortisol, ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and endogenous ACTH concentrations were measured for each dog within 24 hours of admission and daily until death, euthanasia, or discharge from the ICU. Established reference ranges for healthy dogs were used for comparison. Survival prediction index (SPI) scores were calculated for each dog within 24 hours of admission.

Results—No significant difference was found between initial concentrations of basal cortisol, ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and endogenous ACTH in 13 dogs that survived and those in 7 dogs that died. High initial basal endogenous ACTH concentrations were correlated with subsequent high values. Low basal ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were predictive of higher subsequent values. All basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were within or above the reference range in the 52 plasma samples collected from the 20 dogs during hospitalization. The SPI scores correlated with outcome (ie, alive or dead), but none of the plasma hormone concentrations correlated with SPI score or outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that none of the critically ill dogs in our study population developed adrenal insufficiency during hospitalization in the ICU. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:615–619)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association