To describe a modified approach to closed anal sacculectomy and report the short-term outcomes of dogs that underwent the procedure for treatment of neoplasia.
16 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of 1 referral hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent modified closed anal sacculectomy for treatment of anal sac neoplasia between January 2018 and September 2020. Data collected included signalment, examination and diagnostic imaging findings, surgical details, intraoperative and postoperative complications, cytologic and histologic findings, adjuvant treatments, duration of follow-up, and short-term outcome.
15 dogs had apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma, and 1 had a collision tumor. No dogs had intraoperative complications; 1 dog had a minor postoperative complication (paraparesis) that resolved. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 286 days (range, 67 to 777 days). One dog had confirmed local disease recurrence 290 days after surgery, and 1 had suspected local disease recurrence 203 days after surgery and was euthanized because of systemic disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The modified closed anal sacculectomy was well tolerated in this sample of dogs, with minimal short-term complications. This study provided evidence to justify evaluation of the procedure in a larger number of dogs and assessment of the effects of procedural modifications on postoperative complication rates and time to local recurrence.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples.
SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3).
RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment.
To evaluate a novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization in female cats and small dogs and compare the time required for and success rates achieved by use of the novel technique versus traditional methods (blind technique in cats and digital palpation in dogs) as performed by personnel (catheter placers [CPs]) with different levels of experience in urinary catheter placement.
2 CPs were board certified in veterinary surgery, 1 of whom had experience with the novel technique, and the other did not. The third CP was a veterinary surgical intern who was unfamiliar with the novel technique. For each animal enrolled in the study, 1 CP performed catheterization with the novel technique and traditional methods. Data recorded included the time required for successful catheterization and whether a successful catheterization was achieved within a 3-minute time limit.
The overall success rates were 79.5% (31/39 animals) with the novel technique and 43.6% (17/39 animals) with traditional methods. Median times for successful catheter placement were 48 seconds for the novel technique and 41 seconds for traditional methods. Among CPs, success rates or times to successful catheter placement did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Study results suggested that the novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization may be a more efficient option than traditional methods for gaining access to the urinary bladder in cats and small dogs, particularly when patient size limits use of instrumentation or digital palpation.