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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Elk infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis have clinical signs that are similar to those in infected cattle, but elk may die from the disease at a younger age than is commonly reported in cattle. Histologic lesions in elk are similar to classic lesions of paratuberculosis in cattle.

  • Diagnostic techniques such as bacterial culture of feces or tissues and microscopic examination of tissues are useful in confirming a diagnosis made by the agar gel immunodiffusion test.

  • Husbandry methods that can limit transmission of the infection include use of feed and water troughs that can be cleaned with tuberculocidal disinfectant, fencing off or draining areas of standing water, removal of manure from feeding areas, and prompt and continued isolation of elk with clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis.

  • The elk farming industry, characterized by frequent exchange and sale of elk, may benefit from increased veterinary attention to detection and control of paratuberculosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether flies can acquire porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and disperse the virus throughout a designated area.

Animals—60 four-month-old pigs.

Procedure—On day 0, 28 of 60 pigs were inoculated with PRRSV MN 30-100 (index variant). On the same day, 100,000 pupae of ochre-eyed houseflies and 100,000 pupae of red-eyed (wild-type) houseflies were placed in the swine facility for a release-recapture study. Flies were recaptured at 2 locations within the swine facility, 6 locations immediately outside the facility, and 30 locations 0.4, 0.8, 1.3, 1.7, 1.9, and 2.3 km from the facility. Traps were emptied on days 2, 7, 8, 10, and 14. Samples derived from flies were tested by use of a polymerase chain reaction assay, virus DNA was sequenced, and viruses were tested for infectivity by means of a swine bioassay.

Results—PRRSV RNA homologous to the index PRRSV was detected in trapped flies collected inside and immediately outside the facility and from 9 of 48 samples collected at 0.4 km, 8 of 24 samples collected at 0.8 km, 5 of 24 samples collected at 1.3 km, and 3 of 84 samples collected at > 1.7 km from the facility. Two samples collected at 0.8 km contained genetically diverse variants of PRRSV. Swine bioassays revealed the virus in flies was infectious.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flies appeared to become contaminated with PRRSV from infected pigs and transported the virus ≥ 1.7 km. Flyborn transmission may explain how PRRSV is seasonally transported between farms. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1284–1292)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research