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- Author or Editor: Kimimasa Takahashi x
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Objective—To determine the effects of continuous low-dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs, liver, spleen, small intestine, and pancreas in dogs.
Animals—11 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedure—Dogs received a continuous infusion of a low dose (10 µg/kg/h, IV) of LPS ( Escherichia coli055:B5) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20 mL/kg/h, IV) for 8 hours. Activity levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the number of WBCs in circulation were examined before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after the onset of LPS infusion. Expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA and the number of neutrophils in each tissue were examined.
Results—After the onset of LPS infusion, serum TNF-α and IL-1β activities transiently increased. Thereafter, IL-6 activity increased, and high IL-6 activity was maintained throughout the experiment. In dogs in the LPS group, expression of E-selectin mRNA increased only in the lungs, and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA increased in the lungs and liver; the number of neutrophils in the tissue increased in the lungs and liver.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA increased during sepsis, particularly in the lungs and liver, and that this increase was associated with neutrophil accumulation. Hence, inhibiting the activation of endothelial cells in the lung and liver may decrease organ damage caused by accumulated neutrophils and help regulate multiple-organ dysfunction. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1259–1266)
OBJECTIVE To histologically evaluate and compare features of myofibers within the elongated soft palate (ESP) of brachycephalic and mesocephalic dogs with those in the soft palate of healthy dogs and to assess whether denervation or muscular dystrophy is associated with soft palate elongation.
SAMPLE Soft palate specimens from 24 dogs with ESPs (obtained during surgical intervention) and from 14 healthy Beagles (control group).
PROCEDURES All the soft palate specimens underwent histologic examination to assess myofiber atrophy, hypertrophy, hyalinization, and regeneration. The degrees of atrophy and hypertrophy were quantified on the basis of the coefficient of variation and the number of myofibers with hyalinization and regeneration. The specimens also underwent immunohistochemical analysis with anti-neurofilament or anti-dystrophin antibody to confirm the distribution of peripheral nerve branches innervating the palatine myofibers and myofiber dystrophin expression, respectively.
RESULTS Myofiber atrophy, hypertrophy, hyalinization, and regeneration were identified in almost all the ESP specimens. Degrees of atrophy and hypertrophy were significantly greater in the ESP specimens, compared with the control specimens. There were fewer palatine peripheral nerve branches in the ESP specimens than in the control specimens. Almost all the myofibers in the ESP and control specimens were dystrophin positive.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These results suggested that palatine myopathy in dogs may be caused, at least in part, by denervation of the palatine muscles and not by Duchenne- or Becker-type muscular dystrophy. These soft palate changes may contribute to upper airway collapse and the progression of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.
Objective—To determine whether small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion affects intestinal intramucosal pH (pHi), arterial and portal venous blood gas values, and intestinal blood flow (IBF) and to investigate relationships between regional intestinal tissue oxygenation and systemic variables in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedure—Occlusion of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 0, 30, or 60 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes, was performed; IBF, pHi, arterial and portal venous blood gas values, arterial pressure, and heart rate were measured at various time points; and intestinal mucosal injury was histologically graded.
Results—Occlusion of the SMA induced significant decreases in pHi and IBF. After the release of the occlusion, IBF returned rapidly to baseline values, but improvement in pHi was slow. Arterial and portal venous blood gas analyses were less sensitive than tonometric measurements of pHi, and there was no correlation between results of blood gas analyses and tonometric measurements. Histologic score for intestinal mucosal injury increased significantly, depending on duration of ischemia, and there was a correlation between tonometric results and the histologic score.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that it is difficult to accurately evaluate local oxygenation disorders by monitoring at the systemic level, whereas clinically pHi is the only reliable indicator of inadequate regional intestinal tissue oxygenation in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:804–810)