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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) on activity of the reninangiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS), the N-terminal fragment of proatrial natriuretic peptide (NTproANP), and thyroid hormone concentrations in dogs.

Animals—15 dogs with clinical signs of DCM, 15 dogs without clinical signs of DCM, and 15 age-, breed-, and sex-matched control dogs.

Procedure—Physical examinations, thoracic radiography, ECG, and echocardiography were performed on all dogs, and blood and urine samples were collected.

Results—Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), urine aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio, and NT-proANP concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with clinical signs of DCM, compared with dogs without clinical signs and control dogs. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxine concentrations did not differ significantly among groups; however, free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with clinical signs of DCM, compared with control dogs and DCM-dogs without clinical signs. Concentrations of PRA, PAC, FT4, and urine aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio were significantly correlated, whereas plasma concentrations of NT-proANP only correlated with FT4 concentration.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with clinical signs of DCM, increased concentrations of components of the RAAS were associated with increased concentrations of NT-proANP. Analysis of the neurohormonal system may aid in identification of clinical stages of DCM for groups of dogs, but the range is too great and there are too many dogs that have neurohormonal concentrations within reference ranges to assess dogs on an individual basis. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:961–967)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of vasopressin and cortisol and urinary excretion of catecholamines in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Animals—15 dogs with clinical signs of DCM, 15 dogs with preclinical DCM, and 15 control dogs.

Procedure—Physical examinations, thoracic radiography, ECG, and echocardiography were performed on all dogs. Blood and urine samples were collected.

Results—Plasma concentration of vasopressin and the urine cortisol-to-urine creatinine ratio were significantly increased in dogs with clinical signs of DCM and dogs with preclinical DCM, compared with control dogs. Plasma vasopressin concentration was significantly higher in dogs with clinical signs of DCM, compared with dogs with preclinical DCM. Urine vasopressin-to-urine creatinine ratio was significantly increased in dogs with clinical signs of DCM, compared with dogs with preclinical DCM and control dogs. Urine epinephrine-to-urine creatinine ratio and urine norepinephrine-to-urine creatinine ratio were significantly increased in dogs with clinical signs of DCM, compared with control dogs. Plasma concentration of cortisol and urine dopamine-to-urine creatinine ratio did not differ significantly among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—According to this study, the neuroendocrine pattern is changed in dogs with preclinical DCM. These changes are even more pronounced in dogs with clinical signs of DCM. Analysis of concentrations of vasopressin, cortisol, and catecholamines may aid in identification of the clinical stages of DCM. These findings may also provide a basis for additional studies of the possible beneficial effects of vasopressin antagonists and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists in the treatment of dogs with congestive heart failure and DCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1709–1717)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Plasma concentration of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-anp) was investigated in 83 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with variable severity of mitral regurgitation caused by chronic valvular disease (cvd). Severity of mitral incompetence was assessed by echocardiography. Significant differences in plasma concentrations of ir-anp were not found between clinically normal dogs (New York Heart Association functional class O), dogs with only cardiac murmur (class I), and dogs with echocardiographic evidence of slight to moderate left atrial and ventricular dilatation (class II). Dogs with severe left atrial and ventricular dilatation and clinical signs of congestion (classes III and IV) were found to have significantly (P < 0.001) increased plasma concentration of ir-anp. Overall, moderate degree of association was found between plasma concentration of ir-anp and left atrial and left ventricular diameters (Pearson's r = 0.65, 0.60, respectively, P < 0.001), as well as heart rate (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). However, left atrial enlargement was found to have the predominant effect on plasma ir-anp concentration. It is concluded that the plasma concentration of ir-anp did not become markedly increased before decompensation of chronic mitral regurgitation associated with severe enlargement of the left atrium and ventricle in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) during development of clinical signs of decompensated mitral valve regurgitation (MR).

Animals

11 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with advanced MR attributable to chronic valvular disease.

Procedure

Dogs were subjected to repeated examinations at 6-month intervals until signs of decompensation had developed (end point). Data acquired at end point were compared with data obtained from examinations 1 year and 1 to 6 months before decompensation. Each examination included physical examination, collection of venous blood, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography.

Results

Echocardiography measurements of left atrial-to-aortic root ratio and left ventricular end diastolic diameter increased considerably during the study, whereas left ventricular end systolic diameter remained unchanged. The increase in cardiac size was associated with increased plasma concentration of NT-proANP. In contrast, plasma concentrations of aldosterone and angiotensin II were reduced at decompensation (aldosterone compared with the 2 earlier examinations and angiotensin II compared with values obtained 1 to 6 months before), despite decreased plasma protein concentration and hematocrit, suggesting fluid retention. The urine-to-plasma creatinine ratio was reduced at end point.

Conclusion and Clinical Implications

Early decompensated MR in dogs was not associated with increased circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, which may be caused by increased activity of ANP, and may be important for future therapeutic strategies of MR. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:77–82)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To study long-term effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and hydralazine, an arteriodilator, on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance before and after administration of furosemide.

Animals

22 dogs with clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) attributable to mitral regurgitation.

Procedure

After initial examination, 12 dogs received enalapril and 10 received hydralazine. Dogs were re-examined 3 weeks and 6 months after initial examination. Furosemide was added after the 3-week examination, and at 6 months, dogs had received furosemide for at least 4 months.

Results

Angiotensin II and aldosterone plasma concentrations were low before treatment, and only aldosterone became significantly decreased after enalapril monotherapy. Concentrations of both hormones and heart rate increased in dogs receiving hydralazine monotherapy, and fluid retention was evident. After long-term treatment with either of the 2 drugs together with furosemide, angiotensin II and aldosterone values increased in both groups. Natriuresis and kaliuresis developed in all dogs, with greatest effect in those receiving enalapril and furosemide. These dogs had decreased plasma sodium concentration, whereas potassium concentration was equally decreased in both groups. After 6 months, the enalapril group, but not the hydralazine group, had increased cardiac size. All dogs had moderate reduction of weight and were azotemic, although changes were more pronounced in those of the hydralazine group.

Conclusion

The 2 drugs have different effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance in dogs with CHF. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1645–1652)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of CT and MRI for guidance of osteochondral sample collection for histologic detection of early osteoarthritic lesions in centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of horses.

Sample —Right tarsal joints from the cadavers of 24 Icelandic horses aged 29 to 31 months.

Procedures—CT and MRI were used to evaluate the extent of suspected osteoarthritic changes in centrodistal joints, which were graded with a semiquantitative system. The anatomic regions with the highest grade of change were identified, and osteochondral samples were obtained from these regions. Samples were also obtained from the same centrodistal joints at predetermined sites. Histologic examination of all samples was performed, with samples classified as negative or positive for osteoarthritis, and results were compared between sample collection methods.

Results—Histologic examination revealed osteoarthritic lesions in 29% (7/24) of centrodistal joints with the predetermined method and in 63% (15/24) with the image-guided method. Significant associations were identified between histologic osteoarthritis detection and the summed image-guided sample collection site image grades, central osteophytes, articular cartilage thickness abnormalities, grade 2 articular mineralization front defects, and grade 2 marginal osteophytes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT and MRI aided the detection of focal changes suggestive of early-stage osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of equine cadavers and may be useful for detection of similar disease in live horses. The first morphological changes of centrodistal joint osteoarthritis were suspected to be in the articular cartilage and the articular mineralization front regions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research