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Abstract

Objective—To provide a quantitative description of the architecture of superficial digital flexor (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles in adult horses to predict muscle-tendon behavior and estimate muscle forces.

Sample Population—7 forelimb specimens from 7 adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Muscle and tendon lengths and volumes were measured from 6 fixed forelimbs. After processing, fiber bundle and sarcomere lengths were measured. Optimal fascicle lengths and muscle length-to-fascicle length, muscle length-to-free tendon length, and fascicle length-to-tendon length ratios were calculated, as were tendon and muscle physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSAs). Pennation angles were measured in 1 embalmed specimen.

Results—The SDF optimal fascicle lengths were uniformly short (mean ± SD, 0.8 ± 0.1 cm), whereas DDF lengths ranged from 0.9 ± 0.2 cm to 10.8 ± 1.6 cm. The DDF humeral head had 3 architectural subunits, each receiving a separate median nerve branch, suggestive of neuromuscular compartmentalization. Pennation angles were small (10o to 25o). The PCSAs of the SDF and DDF muscle were 234 ± 51 cm2 and 259 ± 30 cm2, with estimated forces of 4,982 ± 1148 N and 5,520 ± 544 N, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SDF muscle appears to provide strong tendinous support with little muscle fascicular shortening and fatigueresistance properties. The DDF muscle combines passive and dynamic functions with larger tension development and higher shortening velocities during digital motion. Architectural parameters are useful for estimation of forces and have implications for analysis of muscle-tendon function, surgical procedures involving muscle-tendon lengthening, and biomechanical modeling. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:819–828)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of incremental radial shortening and subsequent ulnar ostectomies on joint surface contact patterns in a canine elbow joint model.

Sample Population—Paired forelimbs from 9 adult dogs.

Procedure—Joint casting was performed by placement of colored polymethylmethacrylate in the elbow joint cavity and loading in a materials testing system at physiologic angle and load. Joint casting was performed in unaltered specimens, after radial shortening, and after subsequent distal ulnar ostectomy, proximal ulnar ostectomy, and proximal ulnar ostectomy with intramedullary pinning. Computer-aided analysis of photographs of proximal radial and ulnar articular surfaces without joint casts was performed before and after each casting procedure.

Results—All increments of radial shortening changed the size and location of radial and ulnar contact areas. The radial contact area became smaller, the anconeal contact area disappeared, the medial coronoid contact area migrated craniolaterally, and the lateral projection of the coronoid process became a contact area. A proximal ulnar ostectomy stabilized with an intramedullary pin restored normal contact area size and location and restored continuity of the radial and coronoid contact areas across the radioulnar articulation in 6 of 10 specimens. A midshaft ulnar ostectomy, distal to the level of the radioulnar ligament, had no effect on contact patterns. A proximal ulnar ostectomy without stabilization resulted in varus deformity during loading.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Proximal radial shortening, which creates articular step incongruity, changes the location and size of the radioulnar contact areas. Dynamically stabilized ulnar ostectomies proximal to the radioulnar ligament restore contact patterns in vitro . (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1548–1556)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro mechanical properties of toggle pins and toggle rods used as suture anchors and of 3 suture materials (50-lb monofilament polybutester, No. 5 braided polyester, and 5-mm woven polyester) commonly used as prosthetic ligaments in the repair of hip joint luxation in dogs.

Sample Population—Femoropelvic specimens from the cadavers of 18 dogs.

Procedure—Suture anchors were compared by use of pullout tests. Suture materials were compared by use of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests; cyclic tensile tests were performed with the suture placed over the edge of an aluminum bar to simulate the edge of the femoral bone tunnel. In vitro mechanical properties of the ligament of the femoral head were determined by use of monotonic tensile tests, using boneligament-bone cadaveric specimens. The in vitro mechanical properties of the acetabulum-ligamentfemur complex and of this complex following rupture of the ligament and stabilization with a toggle rod and 5-mm woven polyester were determined by use of compression tests that simulated weight-bearing.

Results—Mechanical properties of the toggle rod were not significantly different from those of the toggle pin. Woven polyester had the longest fatigue life in cyclic testing. Hip joints stabilized with a toggle rod and woven polyester had less than half the strength in vitro of intact joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a toggle rod or toggle pin can be used for stabilization of hip joint luxations in dogs. Of the materials tested, braided polyester had the best in vitro mechanical properties. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 721–728)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research